织梦CMS - 轻松建站从此开始!

花卉图片网

当前位置: 主页 > 乔木 >

乔松Pinus wallichiana

时间:2013-07-15 16:17来源:未知 作者:徐晔春 点击:
乔松,Pinus wallichiana




中文名(Chinese Name):乔松
学名(Scientific Name):Pinus wallichiana A. B. Jackson
英文名(English Common Name):Bhutan pine
别名(Chinese Common Name):Pinus dicksonii Carrière;Pinus chylla Lodd.  
异名(Synonym):Pinus dicksonii Carrière;Pinus chylla Lodd.  
科属(Family & Genus):松科(Pinaceae)松属
形态特征(Description):乔木,高达70米,胸径1米以上;树皮暗灰褐色,裂成小块片脱落;枝条广展,形成宽塔形树冠; 一年生枝绿色(干后呈红褐色),无毛,有光泽,微被白粉;冬芽圆柱状倒卵圆形或圆柱状圆锥形,顶端尖,微有树脂,芽鳞红褐色,渐尖,先端微分离。针叶5针一束,细柔下垂,长10-20厘米,径约1毫米,先端渐尖,边缘具细锯齿,背面苍绿色,无气孔线,腹面每侧具4-7条白色气孔线;横切面三角形,单层皮下层细胞,在背面偶尔出现单个或2-3个细胞宽的第二层细胞,树脂道3个,边生,稀腹面1个中生。球果圆柱形,下垂,中下部稍宽,上部微窄,两端钝,具树脂,长15-25厘米,果梗长2.5-4厘米,种鳞张开前径3-4厘米,张开后径5-9厘米;中部种鳞长3-5厘米,宽2-3厘米,鳞盾淡褐色,菱形,微成蚌壳状隆起,有光泽,常有白粉,上部宽三角状半圆形,边缘薄,两侧平,下部底边宽楔形,鳞脐暗褐色,薄,微隆起,先端钝,显著内曲;种子褐色或黑褐色,椭圆状倒卵形,长7-8毫米,径4-5毫米,种翅长2-3厘米,宽8-9毫米。花期4-5月,球果第二年秋季成熟。
分布(Distribution):产于西藏南部海拔2500-3300米地带及东南部、云南西北部海拔1600-2600米地带;生于针叶树阔叶树混交林中。缅甸、不丹、尼泊尔、印度、巴基斯坦、阿富汗也有分布。
用途(Use):树干高大,挺直,材质优良,结构细,纹理直,较轻软. 可作建筑、器具、枕木等用材,亦可提取松脂及松节油。
引自中国植物志英文版FOC Vol. 4
Pinus wallichiana A. B. Jackson, Bull. Misc. Inform. Kew. 1938: 85. 1938.
乔松 qiao song | Pinaceae  | Pinus
Pinus excelsa Wallich ex D. Don (1828), not Lamarck (1778); P. griffithii M’Clelland (1854), not (J. D. Hooker) Parlatore (1868); P. nepalensis Chambray (1845), not J. Forbes (1839).
Trees to 70 m tall; trunk to 1 m or more d.b.h.; bark dark gray-brown, minutely scaly and flaking; crown broadly pyramidal; 1st-year branchlets green (drying red-brown), shiny, faintly whitish bloomed, glabrous; winter buds red-brown, cylindric-obovoid or cylindric-conical, slightly resinous. Needles 5 per bundle, pendulous, slender, triangular in cross section, (6-)11-18(-20) cm × ca. 1 mm, soft, adaxial surface dark green, vascular bundle 1, resin canals 3, adaxial 2 marginal, abaxial 1 always median. Seed cones pendulous, pedunculate (peduncle 2.5-4 cm), cylindric, straight or curved, 10-30 × 3-4 cm (5-9 cm wide when open), resinous. Seed scales cuneate-obovate, 3-5 × 2-3 cm at middle of cone; apophyses shiny, often glaucous, rhombic, slightly thickened; umbo dark brown, slightly projecting, apex obtuse, obviously incurved. Seeds brown or black-brown, ellipsoid-obovoid, 3-9 × 4-5 mm; wing 1-3 cm × 8-9 mm. Pollination Apr-May, seed maturity autumn of 2nd year.
Mountains, temperate rainforests; 1600-3300 m. S Xizang, NW Yunnan [Afghanistan, Bhutan, N India, Kashmir, Myanmar, Nepal, Pakistan, Sikkim]
Pinus wallichiana var. parva K. C. Sahni (Indian J. Forest. 12(1): 40. 1989) was described from SE Xizang, where it apparently grows in temperate rainforests with species of Rhododendron at ca. 3000 m. It is an insufficiently understood taxon, known only from the type, which was not seen by the authors. It is said to differ from typical P. wallichiana as follows: needles mostly less than 11 cm; seed cones straight (not curved), smaller (ca. 10 cm); seeds smaller (ca. 3 mm); wing shorter (ca. 10 mm).
The timber is used for construction, furniture, and for producing turpentine.
(责任编辑:徐晔春)
织梦二维码生成器
顶一下
(0)
0%
踩一下
(0)
0%
------分隔线----------------------------
发表评论
请自觉遵守互联网相关的政策法规,严禁发布色情、暴力、反动的言论。
评价:
表情:
用户名: 验证码:点击我更换图片
栏目列表
推荐内容