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油松Pinus tabuliformis

时间:2013-07-15 16:16来源:未知 作者:徐晔春 点击:
油松,Pinus tabuliformis,红皮松,短叶松






中文名(Chinese Name):油松
学名(Scientific Name):Pinus tabuliformis Carrière
英文名(English Common Name):
别名(Chinese Common Name):红皮松、短叶松
异名(Synonym):Pinus tabulaeformis Carr.;Pinus tabuliformis var. tokunagai (Nakai) Taken.;Pinus tokunagai Nakai;Pinus tabuliformis var. bracteata Takenouchi;Pinus tabuliformis f. jeholensis Liou et Z. Wang;Pinus taihangshanensis Hu et T. Y. Yao;Pinus leucosperma Maxim.;Pinus densiflora var. tabuliformis (Carrière) Mast.;Pinus tabuliformis f. purpurea Liou et Z. Wang;Pinus tabuliformis var. tokunagae (Nakai) Taken.;Pinus tokunagae Nakai
科属(Family & Genus):松科(Pinaceae)松属
形态特征(Description):乔木,高达25米,胸径可达1米以上;树皮灰褐色或褐灰色,裂成不规则较厚的鳞状块片,裂缝及上部树皮红褐色;枝平展或向下斜展,老树树冠平顶,小枝较粗,褐黄色,无毛,幼时微被白粉;冬芽矩圆形,顶端尖,微具树脂,芽鳞红褐色,边缘有丝状缺裂。针叶2针一束,深绿色,粗硬,长10-15厘米,径约1.5毫米,边缘有细锯齿,两面具气孔线;横切面半圆形,二型层皮下层,在第一层细胞下常有少数细胞形成第二层皮下层,树脂道5-8个或更多,边生,多数生于背面,腹面有1-2个,稀角部有1-2个中生树脂道,叶鞘初呈淡褐色,后呈淡黑褐色。雄球花圆柱形,长1.2-1.8厘米,在新枝下部聚生成穗状。球果卵形或圆卵形,长4-9厘米,有短梗,向下弯垂,成熟前绿色,熟时淡黄色或淡褐黄色,常宿存树上近数年之久;中部种鳞近矩圆状倒卵形,长1.6-2厘米,宽约1.4厘米,鳞盾肥厚、隆起或微隆起,扁菱形或菱状多角形,横脊显著,鳞脐凸起有尖刺;种子卵圆形或长卵圆形,淡褐色有斑纹,长6-8毫米,径4-5毫米,连翅长1.5-1.8厘米;子叶8-12枚,长3.5-5.5厘米;初生叶窄条形,长约4.5厘米,先端尖,边缘有细锯齿。花期4-5月,球果第二年10月成熟。
分布(Distribution):为我国特有树种,产吉林南部、辽宁、河北、河南、山东、山西、内蒙古、陕西、甘肃、宁夏、青海及四川等省区,生于海拔100-2600米地带。
用途(Use):心材淡黄红褐色,边材淡黄白色,纹理直,结构较细密一,材质较硬,比重0.4-0.54,富树脂,耐久用。可供建筑、电杆、矿柱、造船、器具、家具及木纤维工业等用材。树干可割取树脂,提取松节油;树皮可提取栲胶。松节、松针(即针叶)、花粉均供药用。
引自中国植物志英文版FOC Vol. 4
Pinus tabuliformis Carrière, Traité Gen. Conif., ed. 2. 1: 510. 1867.
油松 you song | Pinaceae  | Pinus
Trees to 25 m tall; trunk to over 1 m d.b.h.; bark grayish brown or dark gray, scaly; crown flat topped; 1st-year branchlets light grayish brown, light brown, or yellowish brown, thick, glabrous; winter buds oblong, slightly resinous. Needles 2(or 3) per bundle, dark green, semiorbicular in cross section, 6-15 cm × 1-1.5 mm, resin canals 5-9, marginal, rarely 1 or 2 median, base with persistent sheath initially 1-2 cm. Pollen cones 5-9 mm. Seed cones shortly pedunculate, initially green, turning yellowish brown to brown at maturity, ovoid to ovoid-globose, 2.5-9 × 4-9 cm, usually persistent for a few years. Seed scales suboblong-obovate, 1.6-2 × ca. 1.4 cm; apophyses swollen, broadly or irregularly rhombic, ridged or not, cross keeled; umbo protruding into a spine. Seeds pale brown, mottled, ovoid or narrowly so, 6-8 × 4-5 mm (1.5-1.8 cm including wing). Pollination Apr-May, seed maturity Oct of 2nd year.
Hills, mountains; 100-2600 m. Gansu, Hebei, Henan, W Hubei, Hunan, S Jilin, Liaoning, Nei Mongol, Ningxia, Qinghai, Shaanxi, Shandong, Shanxi, Sichuan [Korea]
The timber is used for construction, poles, mine timber, ship building, and furniture. The trunk can be used as a source of resin, the bark for tannin, and the needles for medicine.
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