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马尾松Pinus massoniana

时间:2013-11-11 16:07来源:未知 作者:徐晔春 点击:
马尾松,Pinus massoniana,青松,山松










中文名(Chinese Name):马尾松
学名(Scientific Name):Pinus massoniana Lamb.
英文名(English Common Name):Chinese red pine
别名(Chinese Common Name):青松、山松
异名(Synonym):Pinus argyi Lemée et H. Lév.;Pinus argyi var. longevaginans H. Lév.;Pinus cavaleriei Lemée et H. Lév.;Pinus crassicorticea Y. C. Zhong et K. X. Huang;Pinus canaliculata Miq.;Pinus argyi var. longivaginans H.Lév.
科属(Family & Genus):松科(Pinaceae)松属
形态特征(Description):乔木,高达45米,胸径1.5米;树皮红褐色,下部灰褐色,裂成不规则的鳞状块片;枝平展或斜展,树冠宽塔形或伞形,枝条每年生长一轮,但在广东南部则通常生长两轮,淡黄褐色,无白粉,稀有白粉,无毛;冬芽卵状圆柱形或圆柱形,褐色,顶端尖,芽鳞边缘丝状,先端尖或成渐尖的长尖头,微反曲。针叶2针一束,稀3针一束,长12-20厘米,细柔,微扭曲,两面有气孔线,边缘有细锯齿;横切面皮下层细胞单型,第一层连续排列,第二层由个别细胞断续排列而成,树脂道约4-8个,在背面边生,或腹面也有2个边生;叶鞘初呈褐色,后渐变成灰黑色,宿存。雄球花淡红褐色,圆柱形,弯垂,长1-1.5厘米,聚生于新枝下部苞腋,穗状,长6-15厘米;雌球花单生或2-4个聚生于新枝近顶端,淡紫红色,一年生小球果圆球形或卵圆形,径约2厘米,褐色或紫褐色,上部珠鳞的鳞脐具向上直立的短刺,下部珠鳞的鳞脐平钝无刺。球果卵圆形或圆锥状卵圆形,长4-7厘米,径2.5-4厘米,有短梗,下垂,成熟前绿色,熟时栗褐色,陆续脱落;中部种鳞近矩圆状倒卵形,或近长方形,长约3厘米;鳞盾菱形,微隆起或平,横脊微明显,鳞脐微凹,无刺,生于干燥环境者常具极短的刺;种子长卵圆形,长4-6毫米,连翅长2-2.7厘米;子叶5-8枚;长1.2-2.4厘米;初生叶条形,长2.5-3.6厘米,叶缘具疏生刺毛状锯齿。花期4-5月,球果第二年10-12月成熟。
分布(Distribution):产于江苏(六合、仪征)、安徽(淮河流域、大别山以南), 河南西部峡口、陕西汉水流域以南、长江中下游各省区,南达福建、广东、台湾北部低山及西海岸,西至四川中部大相岭东坡,西南至贵州贵阳、毕节及云南富宁。在长江下游其垂直分布于海拔700米以下,长江中游海拔1100-1200米以下,在西部分布于海拔1500米以下。
用途(Use):心边材区别不明显,淡黄褐色,纹理直,结构粗,比重0.39-0.49,有弹性,富树脂,耐腐力弱。供建筑、枕木、矿柱、家具及木纤维工业(人造丝浆及造纸)原料等用。树干可割取松脂,为医药、化工原料。根部树脂含量丰富;树干及根部可培养茯苓、蕈类,供中药及食用,树皮可提取栲胶。为长江流域以南重要的荒山造林树种。
引自中国植物志英文版FOC Vol. 4
Pinus massoniana Lambert, Descr. Pinus. 1: 17. 1803.
马尾松 ma wei song | Pinaceae  | Pinus
Trees to 45 m tall; trunk to 1.5 m d.b.h.; bark red-brown toward apex of trunk, gray- or red-brown toward base, irregularly scaly and flaking; crown broadly pyramidal or umbrellalike; branchlets usually growing twice per year, yellowish brown, occasionally glaucous; winter buds brown, ovoid-cylindric or cylindric. Needles 2(or 3) per bundle, slightly twisted, 12-20 cm, stomatal lines present on all surfaces, resin canals 4-8, marginal, base with persistent sheath. Seed cones pendulous, shortly pedunculate, green, turning chestnut brown at maturity, ovoid, conical-ovoid, or ovoid-cylindric, 2.5-7 × 2.5-5 cm. Seed scales suboblong-obovoid or subsquare; apophyses rhombic, slightly swollen or flat, slightly transversely ridged; umbo flattened, slightly sunken, blunt or shortly mucronate in apical part of cone. Seeds narrowly ovoid, 4-6 mm; wing 1.6-2.1 cm. Pollination Apr-May, seed maturity Oct-Dec of 2nd year.
* Plains, hills, mountains; near sea level to 2000 m. Anhui, Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, Hainan, W Henan, Hubei, Hunan, S Jiangsu, Jiangxi, SE Shaanxi, Sichuan, Taiwan, E Yunnan, Zhejiang
An important tree for afforestation in S China. The timber is used for construction, railway sleepers, mine timber, furniture, wood pulp, etc., and the trunk as a source of resin and tannin, and for cultivating fungi.
 中文名(Chinese Name):马尾松
学名(Scientific Name):Pinus massoniana Lamb.
英文名(English Common Name):Chinese red pine
别名(Chinese Common Name):青松、山松
异名(Synonym):Pinus argyi Lemée et H. Lév.;Pinus argyi var. longevaginans H. Lév.;Pinus cavaleriei Lemée et H. Lév.;Pinus crassicorticea Y. C. Zhong et K. X. Huang;Pinus canaliculata Miq.;Pinus argyi var. longivaginans H.Lév.
科属(Family & Genus):松科(Pinaceae)松属
形态特征(Description):乔木,高达45米,胸径1.5米;树皮红褐色,下部灰褐色,裂成不规则的鳞状块片;枝平展或斜展,树冠宽塔形或伞形,枝条每年生长一轮,但在广东南部则通常生长两轮,淡黄褐色,无白粉,稀有白粉,无毛;冬芽卵状圆柱形或圆柱形,褐色,顶端尖,芽鳞边缘丝状,先端尖或成渐尖的长尖头,微反曲。针叶2针一束,稀3针一束,长12-20厘米,细柔,微扭曲,两面有气孔线,边缘有细锯齿;横切面皮下层细胞单型,第一层连续排列,第二层由个别细胞断续排列而成,树脂道约4-8个,在背面边生,或腹面也有2个边生;叶鞘初呈褐色,后渐变成灰黑色,宿存。雄球花淡红褐色,圆柱形,弯垂,长1-1.5厘米,聚生于新枝下部苞腋,穗状,长6-15厘米;雌球花单生或2-4个聚生于新枝近顶端,淡紫红色,一年生小球果圆球形或卵圆形,径约2厘米,褐色或紫褐色,上部珠鳞的鳞脐具向上直立的短刺,下部珠鳞的鳞脐平钝无刺。球果卵圆形或圆锥状卵圆形,长4-7厘米,径2.5-4厘米,有短梗,下垂,成熟前绿色,熟时栗褐色,陆续脱落;中部种鳞近矩圆状倒卵形,或近长方形,长约3厘米;鳞盾菱形,微隆起或平,横脊微明显,鳞脐微凹,无刺,生于干燥环境者常具极短的刺;种子长卵圆形,长4-6毫米,连翅长2-2.7厘米;子叶5-8枚;长1.2-2.4厘米;初生叶条形,长2.5-3.6厘米,叶缘具疏生刺毛状锯齿。花期4-5月,球果第二年10-12月成熟。
分布(Distribution):产于江苏(六合、仪征)、安徽(淮河流域、大别山以南), 河南西部峡口、陕西汉水流域以南、长江中下游各省区,南达福建、广东、台湾北部低山及西海岸,西至四川中部大相岭东坡,西南至贵州贵阳、毕节及云南富宁。在长江下游其垂直分布于海拔700米以下,长江中游海拔1100-1200米以下,在西部分布于海拔1500米以下。
用途(Use):心边材区别不明显,淡黄褐色,纹理直,结构粗,比重0.39-0.49,有弹性,富树脂,耐腐力弱。供建筑、枕木、矿柱、家具及木纤维工业(人造丝浆及造纸)原料等用。树干可割取松脂,为医药、化工原料。根部树脂含量丰富;树干及根部可培养茯苓、蕈类,供中药及食用,树皮可提取栲胶。为长江流域以南重要的荒山造林树种。
引自中国植物志英文版FOC Vol. 4
Pinus massoniana Lambert, Descr. Pinus. 1: 17. 1803.
马尾松 ma wei song | Pinaceae  | Pinus
Trees to 45 m tall; trunk to 1.5 m d.b.h.; bark red-brown toward apex of trunk, gray- or red-brown toward base, irregularly scaly and flaking; crown broadly pyramidal or umbrellalike; branchlets usually growing twice per year, yellowish brown, occasionally glaucous; winter buds brown, ovoid-cylindric or cylindric. Needles 2(or 3) per bundle, slightly twisted, 12-20 cm, stomatal lines present on all surfaces, resin canals 4-8, marginal, base with persistent sheath. Seed cones pendulous, shortly pedunculate, green, turning chestnut brown at maturity, ovoid, conical-ovoid, or ovoid-cylindric, 2.5-7 × 2.5-5 cm. Seed scales suboblong-obovoid or subsquare; apophyses rhombic, slightly swollen or flat, slightly transversely ridged; umbo flattened, slightly sunken, blunt or shortly mucronate in apical part of cone. Seeds narrowly ovoid, 4-6 mm; wing 1.6-2.1 cm. Pollination Apr-May, seed maturity Oct-Dec of 2nd year.
* Plains, hills, mountains; near sea level to 2000 m. Anhui, Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, Hainan, W Henan, Hubei, Hunan, S Jiangsu, Jiangxi, SE Shaanxi, Sichuan, Taiwan, E Yunnan, Zhejiang
An important tree for afforestation in S China. The timber is used for construction, railway sleepers, mine timber, furniture, wood pulp, etc., and the trunk as a source of resin and tannin, and for cultivating fungi.
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