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青海云杉Picea crassifolia

时间:2013-07-15 16:13来源:未知 作者:徐晔春 点击:
青海云杉,Picea crassifolia,祁连山云杉







中文名(Chinese Name):青海云杉
学名(Scientific Name):Picea crassifolia Kom.
英文名(English Common Name):
别名(Chinese Common Name):祁连山云杉
异名(Synonym):
科属(Family & Genus):松科(Pinaceae)云杉属
形态特征(Description):乔木,高达23米,胸径30-60厘米;一年生嫩枝淡绿黄色,有或多或少的短毛,或几无毛至无毛,干后或二年生小枝呈粉红色或淡褐黄色,稀呈黄色,通常有明显或微明显的白粉(尤以叶枕顶端的白粉显著),或无白粉,老枝呈淡褐色、褐色或灰褐色;冬芽圆锥形,通常无树脂,基部芽鳞有隆起的纵脊,小枝基部宿存芽鳞的先端常开展或反曲。叶较粗,四棱状条形,近辐射伸展,或小枝上面之叶直上伸展,下面及两侧之叶向上弯伸,多少弯曲或直,长1.2-3.5厘米,宽2-3毫米,先端钝,或具钝尖头,横切面四棱形,稀两侧扁,四面有气孔线,上面每边5-7条,下面每边4-6条。球果圆柱形或矩圆状圆柱形,长7-11厘米,径2-3.5厘米,成熟前种鳞背部露出部分绿色,上部边缘紫红色;中部种鳞倒卵形,长约1.8厘米, 宽约1.5厘米,先端圆,边缘全缘或微成波状,微向内曲,基部宽楔形;苞鳞短小,三角状匙形,长约4毫米;种子斜倒卵圆形,长约3.5毫米,连翅长约1.3厘米,种翅倒卵状,淡褐色,先端圆. 花期4-5月,球果9-10月成熟。
分布(Distribution):为我国特有树种,产祁连山区、青海(都兰以东、西倾山以北)、甘肃 (河西走廊及靖远、榆中、夏河、卓尼、舟曲)、宁夏(贺兰山、六盘山)、内蒙古大青山海拔1600-3800米地带。常在山谷与阴坡组成单纯林。
用途(Use):木材性质与云杉相似。供建筑、桥梁、舟车、家具、器具及木纤维工业原料等用材。青海云杉材质优良、抗旱性较强,为青海东部、甘肃北部山区和祁连山区的优良造林树种。
引自中国植物志英文版FOC Vol. 4
Picea crassifolia Komarov, Bot. Mater. Gerb. Glavn. Bot. Sada RSFSR. 4: 177. 1923.
青海云杉 qing hai yun shan | Pinaceae  | Picea
Trees to 25 m tall; trunk to 60 cm d.b.h. branchlets initially greenish yellow, turning pink or brownish yellow, rarely turning yellow in 2nd year or on drying, usually glaucous, pubescent or glabrous; winter buds conical, usually not resinous, scales usually reflexed, obviously keeled on dorsal sides at base of branchlets. Leaves spreading nearly radially, or ascending on upper side of branchlets, curved laterally on lower side, stout, broadly quadrangular in cross section, 1.2-3.5 cm × 2-3 mm, stomatal lines 5-7 along each surface adaxially and 4-6 along each surface abaxially, apex obtuse or mucronate. Seed cones cylindric, 7-11 × 2-3.5 cm. Seed scales at middle of cones obovate, slightly incurved, ca. 1.8 × 1.5 cm, margin entire or slightly undulate, apex rounded. Seeds obliquely obovoid, ca. 3.5 mm; wing obovate, ca. 9 mm. Pollination Apr-May, seed maturity Sep-Oct.
* Mountains; 1600-3800 m. Gansu, Nei Mongol (Daqing Shan), Ningxia, NE Qinghai (Qilian Shan, around Qinghai Hu)
The uses of the timber are similar to those of Picea asperata.
(责任编辑:徐晔春)
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