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红皮云杉Picea koraiensis

时间:2013-07-15 16:13来源:未知 作者:徐晔春 点击:
红皮云杉,Picea koraiensis,红皮臭









中文名(Chinese Name):红皮云杉
学名(Scientific Name):Picea koraiensis Nakai  
英文名(English Common Name):
别名(Chinese Common Name):红皮臭
异名(Synonym):Picea tonaiensis Nakai;Picea intercedens Nakai;Picea intercedens var. glabra Uyeki;Picea koyamae var. koraiensis (Nakai) Liou et Q. L. Wang;Picea koraiensis subsp. tonaiensis (Nakai) Silba;Picea koraiensis var. nenjiangensis S.Q.Nie & X.Y.Yuan;Picea koraiensis var. tonaiensis (Nakai) T.Lee;Picea pungsanensis var. intercedens (Nakai) T.Lee  
科属(Family & Genus):松科(Pinaceae)云杉属
形态特征(Description):乔木,高达30米以上,胸径60-80厘米;树皮灰褐色或淡红褐色,很少灰色,裂成不规则薄条片脱落,裂缝常为红褐色;大枝斜伸至平展,树冠尖塔形,一年生枝黄色、淡黄褐色或淡红褐色,无白粉,无毛或几无毛,或有较密但非腺头状的短毛,二、三年生枝淡黄褐色、褐黄色或灰褐色;冬芽圆锥形,淡褐黄色或淡红褐色,微有树脂,上部芽鳞常向外展,多少反曲,小枝基部宿存,芽鳞的先端向外反曲,明显或微明显。叶四棱状条形,主枝之叶近辐射排列,侧生小枝上面之叶直上伸展,下面及两侧之叶从两侧向上弯伸,长1.2-2.2厘米,宽约1.5毫米,先端急尖,横切面四棱形,四面有气孔线,上面每边5-8条,下面每边3-5条。球果卵状圆柱形或长卵状圆柱形,成熟前绿色,熟时绿黄褐色至褐色,长5-8厘米,径2.5-3.5厘米;中部种鳞倒卵形或三角状倒卵形,长1.5-1.9厘米,宽1.2-1.5厘米,先端圆或钝三角形,基部宽楔形,鳞背露出部分微有光泽,平滑,无明显的条纹;苞鳞条状,长约5毫米,中下部微窄,先端钝或微尖,边缘有极细的小缺齿;种子灰黑褐色,倒卵圆形,长约4毫米,种翅淡褐色,倒卵状矩圆形,宽约2毫米,先端圆,连种子长1.3-1.6厘米;子叶6-9枚,多为7-8枚,条状锥形,棱上有稀疏齿毛,初生叶四方状条形或稍扁,先端有锐尖头,上部棱上有疏生细锯齿,每边有3-4条气孔线。花期5-6月,球果9-10月成熟。
分布(Distribution):分布于我国东北大、小兴安岭、吉林山区、长白山区、辽宁昭乌达盟地区、内蒙古多伦及锡盟种畜场海拔400-1800米地带。朝鲜北部及苏联远东地区也有分布。
用途(Use):木材淡褐黄白色,较轻软,结构细,耐腐力较弱。可供建筑、电杆、造船、家具、木纤维工业原料、细木加工等用材。树干可割取树脂;树皮及球果的种鳞均含鞣质,可提栲胶,可作东北地区的造林及庭园树种。
引自中国植物志英文版FOC Vol. 4
Picea koraiensis Nakai, Bot. Mag. (Tokyo). 33: 195. 1919.
红皮云杉 hong pi yun shan | Pinaceae  | Picea
Picea intercedens Nakai; P. intercedens var. glabra Uyeki; P. koraiensis var. intercedens (Nakai) Y. L. Chou; P. koyamae Shiras var. koraiensis (Nakai) Liou & Q. L. Wang; P. tonaiensis Nakai.
Trees to 30 m tall; trunk to 80 cm d.b.h.; bark gray- or red-brown, rarely gray, flaking; crown pyramidal; branchlets initially yellow, yellowish brown, or reddish brown, turning yellowish, reddish, or gray-brown in 2nd or 3rd year, slender, glabrous or pubescent; winter buds reddish brown, conical-ovoid, slightly resinous, scales ± recurved at apex. Leaves directed forward on upper side of branchlets, spreading on lower side, quadrangular-linear, straight or curved, broadly quadrangular in cross section, green, 1.2-2.2 cm × 1.5-1.8 mm, stomatal lines 2-4 along each surface, apex acute. Seed cones green, maturing yellowish brown or brown, ovoid-cylindric, 5-8 × 2.5-3.5 cm. Seed scales at middle of cones obovate or obovate-oblong, 1.5-1.9 × 1.2-1.5 cm, exposed part of abaxial surface glossy, distal margin entire, rounded or obtuse. Seeds dark gray, obovoid, ca. 4 mm; wing pale brown, narrowly obovate-oblong, 0.9-1.2 cm. Pollination May-Jun, seed maturity Sep-Oct.
Mountain slopes, along streams; 400-1800 m. Heilongjiang, Jilin, Liaoning [Korea, E Russia]
Only var. koraiensis, described here, occurs in China; var. pungsanensis (Uyeki ex Nakai) Farjon (P. pungsanensis Uyeki ex Nakai) is endemic to N Korea and differs in having the distal margin of the seed scales erose-denticulate and obtuse or truncate.
The timber is used for construction, furniture, carving, poles, ships, and wood pulp. Resin is extracted from the trunk, and tannin from the bark and cones. The species is also cultivated for afforestation and as an ornamental.

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