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长叶云杉Picea smithiana

时间:2013-07-15 15:52来源:未知 作者:徐晔春 点击:
长叶云杉,Picea smithiana



中文名(Chinese Name):长叶云杉
学名(Scientific Name):Picea smithiana (Wall.) Boiss.
英文名(English Common Name):
别名(Chinese Common Name):
异名(Synonym):Pinus smithiana Wall.  Pinus khutrow Royle ex Turra  Picea morinda Link  Picea khutrow (Royle ex Turra) Carrière  Abies khutrow (Royle ex Turra) Loudon  Abies smithiana (Wall.) Lindl.  Abies morinda (Link) Wenderoth  Picea smithiana var. nepalensis Franco  Picea smithiana subsp. nepalensis (Franco) Silba  Picea smithiana var. pendula Sénécl.  Pinus morinda Gordon
科属(Family & Genus):松科Pinaceae云杉属
形态特征(Description):乔木,高达60米;树皮淡褐色,浅裂成圆形或近方形的裂片;大枝平展,小枝下垂,树冠窄;幼枝淡褐色或淡灰色,无毛;冬芽圆锥形或卵圆形,先端钝尖,芽鳞淡红褐色,顶端芽鳞微开展,小枝基部宿存芽鳞的先端多少向外开展,稀不开展。叶辐射斜上伸展,四棱状条形,细长,长3-5厘米,向内弯曲,先端尖,横切面四方形或近四方形,高宽相等或近相等,或两侧略扁,高大于宽,每边具2-5条气孔线。球果圆柱形,两端渐窄,长12-18厘米,径宽约5厘米,成熟前绿色,熟时褐色,有光泽;种鳞质地厚,坚硬,宽倒卵形,长约3厘米,宽约2.4厘米,基部楔形,上部圆,边全缘,先端微呈宽三角状钝尖;苞鳞短小,长3-5毫米;种子长约5毫米,深褐色,种翅长1.5-2厘米,宽约0.8毫米。
分布(Distribution):分布于西藏南部吉隆等地,生于海拔2400-3200米地带。自尼泊尔向西至阿富汗海拔2300-3600米地带也有分布。
用途(Use):木材可供建筑、家具、木纤维工业原料等用。可作西藏南部山区的造林树种。
引自中国植物志英文版FOC Vol. 4 Page 29
Picea smithiana (Wallich) Boissier, Fl. Orient. 5: 700. 1884.
长叶云杉 chang ye yun shan  | Pinaceae  | Picea
Pinus smithiana Wallich, Pl. Asiat. Rar. 3: 24. 1832; Picea khutrow (Royle ex Turra) Carriere; P. morinda Link; Pinus khutrow Royle ex Turra.
Trees to 60 m tall; trunk to 2 m d.b.h.; bark pale brown, breaking into irregular plates; crown conical; branchlets pendulous, pale brown or pale gray when young, glabrous; winter buds reddish brown, conical or ovoid, scales slightly open, rarely appressed at base of branchlets. Leaves spreading radially, directed obliquely forward, quadrangular-linear, slender, curved, quadrangular or subquadrangular in cross section, 3.3-5.5 cm × 1.3-1.8 mm, stomatal lines 2-5 along each surface, apex acute or acuminate. Seed cones green, maturing brown, lustrous, cylindric or fusiform-cylindric, 10-18 × 4.5-5 cm. Seed scales broadly obovate, thick, ca. 3 × 2.4 cm, rigid, base cuneate, apex entire, broadly triangular-obtuse. Seeds dark brown, ca. 5 mm; wing ovoid-oblong, 1-1.5 cm, apex pointed.
Alpine lithosols; 2300-3600 m. S Xizang [Afghanistan, N India, Kashmir, Nepal, Pakistan]
A rare species in China. The timber is used for construction, furniture, and wood pulp. The species is also cultivated for afforestation and as an ornamental.

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