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麦吊云杉Picea brachytyla

时间:2013-07-15 15:51来源:未知 作者:徐晔春 点击:
麦吊云杉,Picea brachytyla





中文名(Chinese Name):麦吊云杉
学名(Scientific Name):Picea brachytyla (Franch.) Pritz.
英文名(English Common Name):
别名(Chinese Common Name):
异名(Synonym):Abies brachytyla Franch.  Picea brachytyla var. latisquamea Stapf  Picea sargentiana Rehder et E. H. Wilson  Picea ascendens Patschke  Picea pachyclada Patschke  Picea brachytyla var. pachyclada (Patschke) Silba  Picea brachytyla var. rhombisquamea Stapf  Picea brachytyla subsp. pachyclada (Patschke) Silba
科属(Family & Genus):松科Pinaceae云杉属
形态特征(Description):乔木,高达30米,胸径达1米;树皮淡灰褐色,裂成不规则的鳞状厚块片固着于树干上;大枝平展,树冠尖塔形;侧枝细而下垂,一年生枝淡黄色或淡褐黄色,有毛或无毛,二、三年生枝褐黄色或褐色,渐变成灰色;冬芽常为卵圆形及卵状圆锥形,稀顶芽圆锥形,侧芽卵圆形,芽鳞排列紧密,褐色,先端钝,小枝基部宿存芽鳞紧贴小枝,不向外开展。小枝上面之叶覆瓦状向前伸展,两侧及下面之叶排成两列;条形,扁平,微弯或直,长1-2.2厘米,宽1-1.5毫米,先端尖或微尖,上面有2条白粉气孔带,每带有气孔线5-7条,下面光绿色,无气孔线。球果矩圆状圆柱形或圆柱形,成熟前绿色,熟时褐色或微带紫色,长6-12厘米,宽2.5-3.8厘米;中部种鳞倒卵形或斜方状倒卵形,长1.4-2.2厘米,宽1.1-1.3厘米,上部圆排列紧密,或上部三角形则排列较疏松;种子连翅长约1.2厘米。花期4-5月,球果9-10月成熟。
分布(Distribution):为我国特有树种, 产于湖北西部、陕西东南部、四川东北部、北部平武及岷江流域上游、甘肃南部白龙江流域,生于海拔1500-2900米(间或至3500米)地带。
用途(Use):木材坚韧,纹理细密,比重0.52。可供飞机、机器、车辆、乐器、建筑、家具、器具及木纤维工业原料等用材。在其分布区内,宜选作森林更新或荒山造林树种。
引自中国植物志英文版FOC Vol. 4 Page 31
Picea brachytyla (Franchet) E. Pritzel, Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 29: 216. 1900.
麦吊云杉 mai diao shan | Pinaceae  | Picea
Trees to 30 m tall; trunk to 1 m d.b.h.; bark gray or grayish brown, longitudinally fissured into thick, square plates or irregularly flaking; crown conical-pyramidal; branchlets pendulous, initially pale yellow or brownish yellow, turning brownish yellow or brown in 2nd or 3rd year, finally gray; winter buds often ovoid or ovoid-conical, rarely conical at apex, scales appressed at base of branchlets. Leaves directed forward and closely appressed on upper side of branchlets, spreading and almost pectinately arranged on lower side, linear, not parallel sided, slightly curved or straight, flattened, 1-2.2(-2.5) cm × 1-1.5 mm, slightly keeled on both sides, stomatal lines 5-7 in each of 2 white or pale bands adaxially, apex acute or mucronate. Seed cones green, red- or purple-brown, maturing dull brown or brown tinged purplish, ovoid- or cylindric-oblong, 6-10(-12) × 3-4 cm. Seed scales at middle of cones obovate-oblong or rhombic, 1.4-2.2 × 1.1-1.3 cm, base cuneate, distal margin usually recurved, sometimes elongate. Seeds ca. 1.2 cm including wing. Pollination Apr-May, seed maturity Sep-Oct.
Mountain slopes, valleys, river basins; 1500-3800 m. S Gansu, W Henan, W Hubei, SE Shaanxi, Sichuan, SE Xizang, NW Yunnan [Bhutan, N Myanmar]
A vulnerable species in China. The timber is used for construction, aircraft, machines, and wood pulp. The species is also cultivated for afforestation.

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