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高山松Pinus densata

时间:2013-07-15 15:56来源:未知 作者:徐晔春 点击:
高山松,Pinus densata




中文名(Chinese Name):高山松
学名(Scientific Name):Pinus densata Mast.
英文名(English Common Name):
别名(Chinese Common Name):
异名(Synonym):Pinus sinensis var. densata (Mast.) Shaw  Pinus tabuliformis var. densata (Mast.) Rehder  Pinus prominens Mast.
科属(Family & Genus):松科Pinaceae松属
形态特征(Description):乔木,高达30米,胸径达1.3米;树干下部树皮暗灰褐色,深裂成厚块片,上部树皮红色,裂成薄片脱落;一年生枝粗壮,黄褐色,有光泽,无毛,二、三年生枝皮逐渐脱落,内皮红色;冬芽卵状圆锥形或圆柱形,先端尖,微被树脂,芽鳞栗褐色,披针形,先端彼此散开,边缘白色丝状。针叶2针一束,稀3针一束或2针3针并存,粗硬,长6-15厘米,径1.2-1.5毫米,微扭曲,两面有气孔线,边缘锯齿锐利;横切面半圆形或扇状三角形,二型皮下层,第一层细胞连续,第二层不连续排列,稀有第三层细胞,树脂道3-7(-10)个,边生,稀角部的树脂道中生;叶鞘初呈淡褐色,老则暗灰褐色或黑褐色。球果卵圆形,长5-6厘米,径约4厘米,有短梗,熟时栗褐色,常向下弯垂;中部种鳞卵状矩圆形,长约2.5厘米,宽1.3厘米,鳞盾肥厚隆起,微反曲或不反曲,横脊显著,由鳞脐四周辐射状的纵横纹亦较明显,鳞脐突起,多有明显的刺状尖头;种子淡灰褐色,椭圆状卵圆形,微扁,长4-6毫米,宽3-4毫米,种翅淡紫色,长约2厘米。花期5月,球果第二年10月成熟。
分布(Distribution):为我国西部高山地区的特有树种,产于四川西部、青海南部、西藏东部及云南西北部高山地区。
用途(Use):木材较坚韧,质较细,富树脂。可供建筑、板材等用。树干可割取树脂。可作四川西部、西藏东部高山地区的造林树种。
引自中国植物志英文版FOC Vol. 4 Page 16
Pinus densata Masters, J. Linn. Soc., Bot. 37: 416. 1906.
高山松 gao shan song | Pinaceae  | Pinus
Pinus prominens Masters; P. sinensis D. Don var. densata (Masters) Shaw; P. tabuliformis Carriere var. densata (Masters) Rehder; P. wilsonii Shaw (1911), not Roezl (1857).
Trees to 30 m tall; trunk to 1.3 m d.b.h.; bark reddish brown, scaly and plated when young, finally dark grayish brown, forming irregular, square, thick plates; crown ovoid-conical, broadly ovoid in old trees; branches spreading; 1st-year branchlets shiny yellowish brown, stout; 2nd- and 3rd-year branchlets reddish brown; winter buds dull brown, ovoid-conical, ca. 15 × 6 mm, slightly resinous, scales white fringed at margin, acuminate at apex. Needles persisting for 3 years, usually 2(or 3) per bundle, straight, slightly twisted, 8-14 cm × 1-1.5 mm, stomatal lines present on all surfaces, resin canals 3 or 4, marginal, occasionally 1 or 2 median, base with persistent sheath initially 5-10 mm, margin finely serrulate, apex acute. Pollen cones yellowish brown, cylindric, 10-18 × 3-4.5 mm. Seed cones solitary or in pairs, pendulous, sessile or very shortly pedunculate, shiny chocolate brown at maturity, narrowly ovoid before opening, ovoid or broadly ovoid when open, 4-6 × 4-7 cm, persistent. Seed scales with apophyses prominent, rhombic, 4-7 mm thick, sharply transversely keeled; umbo dorsal, with a short prickle. Seeds light grayish brown, ellipsoid-ovoid, 4-6 mm; wing 1.5-2 cm. Pollination May, seed maturity Oct of 2nd year.
* Open forests in high mountains, forming pure stands or (below 3000 m) mixed with Pinus armandii and P. yunnanensis; 2600-3500 (-4200) m. S Qinghai, W Sichuan, SE Xizang, Yunnan
Morphologically intermediate between Pinus yunnanensis of lower elevations and P. tabuliformis of more northerly latitudes. Molecular evidence supports the hypothesis that P. densata originated as a Tertiary natural hybrid involving the former two species and a third, unknown species.
Can be used for afforestation in the alpine zones of W Sichuan and E Xizang.
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