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南洋杉Araucaria cunninghamii

时间:2013-12-04 17:46作者:徐晔春 点击: 次 标签: Araucariaceae 南洋杉科 南洋杉属 Araucaria
  





中文名(Chinese Name):南洋杉
学名(Scientific Name): Araucaria cunninghamii Sweet
英文名(English Common Name):
别名(Chinese Common Name):肯氏南洋杉、鳞叶南洋杉
异名(Synonym):
科属(Family & Genus):南洋杉科(Araucariaceae)南洋杉属(Araucaria
形态特征(Description):乔木,在原产地高达60-70米,胸径达1米以上,树皮灰褐色或暗灰色,粗糙,横裂;大枝平展或斜伸,幼树冠尖塔形,老则成平顶状,侧生小枝密生,下垂,近羽状排列。叶二型:幼树和侧枝的叶排列疏松,开展,钻状、针状、镰状或三角状,长7-17毫米,基部宽约2.5毫米,微弯,微具四棱或上(腹)面的棱脊不明显,上面有多数气孔线,下面气孔线不整齐或近于无气孔线,上部渐窄,先端具渐尖或微急尖的尖头;大树及花果枝上之叶排列紧密而叠盖,斜上伸展,微向上弯,卵形,三角状卵形或三角状,无明显的背脊或下面有纵脊,长6-10毫米,宽约4毫米,基部宽,上部渐窄或微圆,先端尖或钝,中脉明显或不明显,上面灰绿色,有白粉,有多数气孔线,下面绿色,仅中下部有不整齐的疏生气孔线。雄球花单生枝顶,圆柱形。球果卵形或椭圆形,长6-10厘米,径4.5-7.5厘米;苞鳞楔状倒卵形,两侧具薄翅,先端宽厚,具锐脊,中央有急尖的长尾状尖头,尖头显著的向后反曲;舌状种鳞的先端薄,不肥厚;种子椭圆形,两侧具结合而生的膜质翅。
分布(Distribution):原产大洋洲东南沿海地区。我国广州、海南岛、厦门等地有栽培,作庭园树,生长快,已开花结实;长江以北有盆栽。
用途(Use):木材可供建筑、器具、家具等用。
引自中国植物志英文版 FOC Vol. 4
2. Araucaria cunninghamii Aiton ex D. Don in Lambert, Descr. Pinus, ed. 2. 3: t. 79. 1837.
南洋杉 nan yang shan | Araucariaceae  | Araucaria
Eutassa cunninghamii (Aiton ex D. Don) Spach.
Trees to 70 m tall; trunk to more than 1 m d.b.h.; bark gray-brown or dark gray, rough, transversely split; crown tower-shaped when young, becoming flat topped with age; lateral branchlets dense, drooping, almost pinnately arranged. Leaves dimorphic: leaves of young trees and lateral branchlets loosely arranged, needlelike, falcate, subulate, or triangular, slightly curved, somewhat tetragonal or ridged (not obviously so abaxially), 0.7-1.7 cm × ca. 2.5 mm wide at base, stomatal lines weakly evident on abaxial surface, apex acute or acuminate; leaves on mature trees and cone-bearing branchlets densely arranged, overlapping, stretching upward, gray-green abaxially, glaucous, ovate to triangular, 6-10 mm, ca. 4 mm wide at base, ridged or not, midvein obvious or not, distal part of leaf tapering or slightly rounded, apex acute or obtuse. Pollen cones terminal, solitary, ovoid or ellipsoid. Seed cones ovoid or ellipsoid, 6-10 × 4.5-7.5 cm; bracts narrowly obovate, sharply ridged, with thin, lateral wing, apex caudate, thickened, acute, obviously reflexed; seed scales thin at apex. Seeds ellipsoid, with a membranous, lateral wing.
Cultivated. Guangdong (Guangzhou Shi), Hainan, Fujian (Xiamen Shi), S Yunnan (Jinghong Xian, Mengla Xian) [native to Papua New Guinea; NE Australia]
The illustration in FRPS (pl. 7) includes a branchlet (f. 1) of what may be another species cultivated in China, possibly Araucaria columnaris (J. R. Forster) Hooker, which is native to S New Caledonia and nearby islands. Indeed, this species has been recorded from extreme SE Xizang as a cultivated ornamental, but no voucher specimen has been seen by the authors.
 
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