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天麻 Gastrodia elata

时间:2013-10-23 21:32来源:未知 作者:徐晔春 点击:
中文名( Chinese Name ):天麻 学名( Scientific Name ): Gastrodia elata Bl. 英文名( English Common Name ): 别名( Chinese Common Name ): 异名( Synonym ): Gastrodia mairei Schltr. Gastrodia elata f. pilifera Tuyama Gastrodia elat
中文名(Chinese Name):天麻
学名(Scientific Name):Gastrodia elata Bl.
英文名(English Common Name):
别名(Chinese Common Name):
异名(Synonym):Gastrodia mairei Schltr.  Gastrodia elata f. pilifera Tuyama  Gastrodia elata var. gracilis Pamp.  
科属(Family & Genus):兰科(Orchidaceae)天麻属
形态特征(Description):植株高30-100厘米,有时可达2米;根状茎肥厚,块茎状,椭圆形至近哑铃形,肉质,长8-12厘米,直径3-5 (-7)厘米,有时更大,具较密的节,节上被许多三角状宽卵形的鞘。茎直立,橙黄色、黄色、灰棕色或蓝绿色,无绿叶,下部被数枚膜质鞘。总状花序长5-30(-50)厘米,通常具30-50朵花;花苞片长圆状披针形,长1-1. 5厘米,膜质;花梗和子房长7-12毫米,略短于花苞片;花扭转,橙黄、淡黄、蓝绿或黄白色,近直立;萼片和花瓣合生成的花被筒长约1厘米,直径5-7毫米,近斜卵状圆筒形,顶端具5枚裂片,但前方亦即两枚侧萼片合生处的裂口深达5毫米,筒的基部向前方凸出;外轮裂片(萼片离生部分)卵状三角形,先端钝;内轮裂片(花瓣离生部分)近长圆形,较小;唇瓣长圆状卵圆形,长6-7毫米,宽3-4毫米,3裂,基部贴生于蕊柱足末端与花被筒内壁上并有一对肉质胼胝体,上部离生,上面具乳突,边缘有不规则短流苏;蕊柱长5-7毫米,有短的蕊柱足。蒴果倒卵状椭圆形,长1. 4-1. 8厘米,宽8-9毫米。花果期5-7月。
分布(Distribution):产吉林、辽宁、内蒙古、河北、山西、陕西、甘肃、江苏、安徽、浙江、江西、台湾、河南、湖北、湖南、四川、贵州、云南和西藏。生于疏林下,林中空地、林缘,灌丛边缘,海拔400-3200米。尼泊尔、不丹、印度、日本、朝鲜半岛至西伯利亚也有分布。模式标本采自东亚,具体地点不详。
用途(Use):天麻是名贵中药,用以治疗头晕目眩、肢体麻木、小儿惊风等症。
引自中国植物志英文版:FOC Vol. 25 Page 202, 203
Gastrodia elata Blume, Mus. Bot. 2: 174. 1856.
天麻 tian ma| Orchidaceae  | Gastrodia
Gastrodia elata f. alba S. Chow; G. elata f. flavida S. Chow; G. elata f. glauca S. Chow; G. elata var. gracilis Pampanini; G. elata f. pilifera Tuyama; G. elata f. viridis (Makino) Makino; G. elata var. viridis (Makino) Makino; G. mairei Schlechter; G. viridis Makino.
Plants 30-100 cm, rarely to 200 cm tall. Rhizomes usually ellipsoid, 8-12 cm, stout, 3-5(-7) cm in diam., sometimes larger, fleshy, densely noded, with triangular or broadly ovate scales at nodes. Peduncle orange, yellow, grayish brown, or greenish, 25-80(-150) cm, with several membranous sheaths toward base; rachis 5-30(-50) cm, subdensely to densely 20-50-flowered; floral bracts oblong-lanceolate, 10-16 mm, often exceeding ovary, membranous, apex acuminate. Flowers suberect, resupinate, opening weakly, orange, pale yellow, bluish green, or yellowish white; pedicel and ovary 7-12 mm. Perianth tube urceolate, 8-10 × 5-7 mm, with a deep sinus between lateral sepals, base inflated, outer surface smooth; free portion of sepals ovate-triangular, 3-5 mm, apex obtuse; free portion of petals suboblong, smaller than sepal lobes, apex acute; lip obscurely 3-lobed, oblong-ovoid, 6-7 × 3-4 mm, glabrous, base clawed, apical margin irregularly fimbriate; claw with a pair of gibbous foldings; disk papillose, with a pair of fleshy reniform calli. Column 5-7 mm; column foot short. Capsule obovoid-ellipsoid, 14-18 × 8-9 mm. Fl. and fr. May-Jul. 2n = 24, 30, 36.
Sparse forests, open places in forests, forest margins, thicket margins; 400-3200 m. Anhui, N Fujian, Gansu, Guizhou, Hebei, Henan, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, Jilin, Liaoning, Nei Mongol, Shaanxi, Shanxi, Sichuan, Taiwan, Xizang, Yunnan, Zhejiang [Bhutan, NE India, Japan, Korea, Nepal, Russia (Far East)].
This species is widely cultivated for its tubers (tianma) that are used in traditional Chinese medicine for the treatment of convulsive disorders such as epilepsy.




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