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无叶美冠兰Eulophia zollingeri

时间:2013-10-23 20:59来源:未知 作者:徐晔春 点击:
中文名( Chinese Name ):无叶美冠兰 学名( Scientific Name ): Eulophia zollingeri (Rchb. f.) J. J. Smith 英文名( English Common Name ): 别名( Chinese Common Name ): 异名( Synonym ): Cyrtopera sanguinea Lindl. Cyrtopera zollinge
中文名(Chinese Name):无叶美冠兰
学名(Scientific Name):Eulophia zollingeri (Rchb. f.) J. J. Smith
英文名(English Common Name):
别名(Chinese Common Name):
异名(Synonym):Cyrtopera sanguinea Lindl.  Cyrtopera zollingeri Rchb. f.  Eulophia macrorhiza Blume  Eulophia ochobiensis Hayata  Eulophia yushuiana S. Y. Hu  Eulophia sanguinea (Lindl.) Hook. f.  Neuwiedia zollingeri Rchb. f.  Cyrtopodium rufum (Thwaites) Trimen  Cyrtopera rufa Thwaites  Cyrtopodium sanguineum (Lindl.) N.E.Br.  Eulophia carrii C.T.White  Eulophia macrorhizon Hook.f.  Graphorkis macrorhiza (Blume) Kuntze  Graphorkis papuana (Ridl.) Kuntze  Graphorkis rufa (Thwaites) Kuntze  Graphorkis sanguinea (Lindl.) Kuntze  Eulophia macrorhiza var. minahassae Schltr.  Eulophia zollingeri f. viride Yokota  Graphorchis macrorhiza (Blume) Kuntze  Graphorchis rufa (Thwaites) Kuntze  Graphorchis sanguinea (Lindl.) Kuntze 
科属(Family & Genus):兰科(Orchidaceae)美冠兰属
形态特征(Description):腐生植物,无绿叶。假鳞茎块状,近长圆形,淡黄色,长3-8厘米,直径1.5-2厘米,有节,位于地下。花葶粗壮,褐红色,高(15-)40-80厘米,自下至上有多枚鞘;总状花序直立,长达13厘米,疏生数朵至10余朵花;花苞片狭披针形或近钻形,长1-2.5厘米;花梗和子房长1.6-1.8厘米;花褐黄色,直径2.5-3厘米;中萼片椭圆状长圆形,长1.5-1.8毫米,宽4-7毫米,先端渐尖;侧萼片近长圆形,明显长于中萼片,稍斜歪,基部着生于蕊柱足上;花瓣倒卵形,长1.1-1.4厘米,宽5-7毫米,先端具短尖;唇瓣生于蕊柱足上,近倒卵形或长圆状倒卵形,长1.4-1.5厘米,3裂;侧裂片近卵形或长圆形,多少围抱蕊柱;中裂片卵形,长4-5毫米,宽3-4毫米,上面有5-7条粗脉下延至唇盘上部,脉上密生乳突状腺毛;唇盘上其他部分亦疏生乳突状腺毛,中央有2条近半圆形的褶片;基部的圆锥形囊长约2毫米;蕊柱长约5毫米,基部有长达4毫米的蕊柱足。花期4-6月。
分布(Distribution):产江西、福建、台湾、广东、广西和云南。生于疏林下、竹林或草坡上,海拔400-500米。斯里兰卡、印度、马来西亚、印度尼西亚、新几内亚岛、澳大利亚北部以及日本琉球群岛也有分布。
用途(Use):
引自中国植物志英文版:FOC Vol. 25 Page 253, 254
Eulophia zollingeri (H. G. Reichenbach) J. J. Smith, Orch. Java. 228. 1905.
无叶美冠兰 wu ye mei guan lan | Orchidaceae  | Eulophia
Cyrtopera zollingeri H. G. Reichenbach, Bonplandia 5: 38. 1857; C. formosana Rolfe; C. papuana Ridley (1886), not Kraenzlin (1898); C. rufa Thwaites; C. sanguinea Lindley; Cyrtopodium rufum (Thwaites) Trimen; C. sanguineum (Lindley) N. E. Brown; Eulophia carrii C. T. White; E. formosana (Rolfe) Rolfe; E. macrorhiza Blume; E. ochobiensis Hayata; E. papuana (Ridley) J. J. Smith (1909), not Schlechter (1905), nor F. M. Bailey (1907); E. sanguinea (Lindley) J. D. Hooker; E. yushuiana S. Y. Hu; Graphorkis macrorhiza (Blume) Kuntze; G. papuana (Ridley) Kuntze; G. rufa (Thwaites) Kuntze; G. sanguinea (Lindley) Kuntze.
Plants heteromycotrophic, without green leaves, (15-)40-80 cm tall. Pseudobulb subterranean, tuberous, pale yellow, suboblong, 3-16 × 1.5-5 cm, many noded, with many stout roots. Inflorescence brownish red, racemose, (15-)40-80 cm, stout, with several scattered, clasping sheaths; rachis 4-13 cm, laxly 8- to more than 20-flowered; floral bracts narrowly lanceolate to almost subulate, 10-25 mm, subequal in length to or exceeding ovary, apex acuminate. Flowers suberect, spreading, or nodding, dull purple-red to brownish yellow, medium-sized, 25-30 mm in diam.; pedicel and ovary 16-20 mm. Dorsal sepal elliptic-oblong, 15-23 × 4-7 mm, apex acuminate; lateral sepals suboblong, slightly oblique, 16-25 × 6-9 mm, adnate at base to column foot, apex acuminate. Petals oblanceolate, 11-18 × 5-7 mm, apex mucronate; lip adnate to column foot, subobovate or oblong-obovate, 14-15 × 15-18 mm, shortly saccate-spurred at base, 3-lobed; lateral lobes erect and loosely embracing column, subovate or oblong, 3-4 × ca. 4.5 mm, apex rounded; mid-lobe ovate, 4-7 × 3-5 mm, with 5-7 thickened, papillose veins, margin undulate, apex apiculate; disk sparsely papillose, with 2 central, suborbicular lamellae; spur broad, conic, ca. 2 mm. Column ca. 5 mm; column foot 4-5 mm. Fl. Apr-May. 2n = 34.
Sparse forests, bamboo forests, grassy slopes; sea level to 500 m. Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi, S Jiangxi, Taiwan, C Yunnan [India, Indonesia, Japan (Ryukyu Islands), Malaysia, New Guinea, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Vietnam; Australia].








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