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美冠兰 Eulophia graminea

时间:2013-10-23 20:58来源:未知 作者:徐晔春 点击:
中文名( Chinese Name ):美冠兰 学名( Scientific Name ): Eulophia graminea Lindl. 英文名( English Common Name ): 别名( Chinese Common Name ): 异名( Synonym ): Eulophia gusukumai Masam. Eulophia venusta Schltr. Eulophia sinensi
中文名(Chinese Name):美冠兰
学名(Scientific Name):Eulophia graminea Lindl.
英文名(English Common Name):
别名(Chinese Common Name):
异名(Synonym):Eulophia gusukumai Masam.  Eulophia venusta Schltr.  Eulophia sinensis Miq.  Graphorchis graminea (Lindl.) Kuntze  Eulophia decipiens Kurz  Eulophia gusukumae Masam.  Eulophia inconspicua Griff.  Eulophia ucbii Malhotra & Balodi  Graphorkis decipiens (Kurz) Kuntze  Graphorkis graminea (Lindl.) Kuntze  Graphorkis inconspicua (Griff.) Kuntze  Graphorchis decipiens (Kurz) Kuntze  Graphorchis inconspicua (Griff.) Kuntze 
科属(Family & Genus):兰科(Orchidaceae)美冠兰属
形态特征(Description):假鳞茎卵球形、圆锥形、长圆形或近球形,长3-7厘米,直径2-4厘米,直立,常带绿色,多少露出地面,上部有数节,有时多个假鳞茎聚生成簇团,直径达20-30 厘米。叶3-5枚,在花全部凋萎后出现,线形或线状披针形,长13-35厘米,宽7-10毫米,先端渐尖,基部收狭成柄;叶柄套叠而成短的假茎,外有数枚鞘。花葶从假鳞茎一侧节上发出,高43-65厘米或更高,中部以下有数枚鞘;鞘长1.5-3.5厘米;总状花序直立,长20-40厘米,常有1-2个侧分枝,疏生多数花;花苞片草质,线状披针形,长4-8毫米,宽约2毫米,先端长渐尖;花梗和子房长1.5-1.9厘米;花橄榄绿色,唇瓣白色而具淡紫红色褶片;中萼片倒披针状线形,长1.1-1.3厘米,宽1.5-2毫米,先端渐尖;侧萼片与中萼片相似,常略斜歪而稍大;花瓣近狭卵形,长9-10毫米,宽2.5-3毫米,先端短渐尖;唇瓣近倒卵形或长圆形,长9-10毫米,3裂;侧裂片较小;中裂片近圆形,长4-5毫米;唇盘上有(3-)5条纵褶片,从基部延伸至中裂片上,从接近中裂片开始一直到中裂片上褶片均分裂成流苏状;基部的距圆筒状或后期略呈棒状(因中部缢缩而末端较粗),长3-3.5毫米,常略向前弯曲;蕊柱长4-5毫米(不连花药),无蕊柱足。蒴果下垂,椭圆形,长2.5-3厘米,宽约1厘米;果梗长约1厘米。花期4-5月,果期5-6月。
分布(Distribution):产安徽、台湾、广东、香港、海南、广西、贵州和云南。生于海拔900~1200米疏林中草地上、山坡阳处、海边沙滩林中。东南亚及日本琉球群岛也有。
用途(Use):
引自中国植物志英文版:FOC Vol. 25 Page 253, 254, 255  
Eulophia graminea Lindley, Gen. Sp. Orchid. Pl. 182. 1833.
美冠兰 mei guan lan| Orchidaceae  | Eulophia
Eulophia decipiens Kurz; E. gusukumae Masamune; E. inconspicua Griffith; E. ramosa Hayata (1911), not Ridley (1885); E. sinensis Miquel; E. ucbii Malhotra & Balodi; E. venusta Schlechter; Graphorkis decipiens (Kurz) Kuntze; G. graminea (Lindley) Kuntze; G. inconspicua (Griffith) Kuntze.
Plants autotrophic, 40-80 cm tall. Pseudobulb borne above ground, erect, ovoid, conic, oblong, or subglobose, 3-7 × 2-4 cm, several noded, sometimes present in large numbers and forming clusters to 20-30 cm in diam. Leaves 3-5, present at or emerging after anthesis, linear to linear-lanceolate, 13-35 × 0.7-1 cm, apex acuminate; petiole-like stalk enclosed in several basal sheaths and forming a pseudostem. Inflorescence racemose or occasionally 1- or 2-branched and paniculate, 40-75 cm, slender, with several scattered sheaths 1.5-3.5 cm; rachis 12-40 cm, laxly 4- to more than 10-flowered; floral bracts linear-lanceolate, 4-8 × ca. 2 mm, shorter than ovary, apex acuminate. Flowers medium-sized, to ca. 30 mm in diam.; sepals and petals olive-green with dark green venation, lip white with purplish red lamellae; pedicel and ovary 15-20 mm. Dorsal sepal narrowly oblong to oblanceolate, 11-15 × 1.5-3 mm, apex acuminate; lateral sepals similar to dorsal sepal, usually slightly longer and slightly oblique. Petals reflexed above middle, narrowly ovate, 9-10 × 2.5-3 mm, apex shortly acuminate; lip subobovate-oblong, 9-10 × 4-5 mm, spurred at base, 3-lobed at or below middle; lateral lobes small; mid-lobe orbicular, 4-5 × 4-5 mm, apex with an acute mucro; disk with (3 or)5 longitudinal lamellae, extending from base of lip almost to apex of mid-lobe, divided into fimbriate fringes on mid-lobe, white tinged purplish red; spur usually curving forward, cylindric or slightly clavate, 3-3.5 mm, apex acute to obtuse. Column 4-5 mm, without a column foot. Capsule pendulous, ellipsoid, 25-30 × ca. 10 mm. Fl. Apr-May, fr. May-Jun. 2n = 42, 48, 56.
Grassy places in open forests, open slopes, disturbed grasslands, forests along sandy beaches, coastal grasslands; 900-2100 m. Anhui, Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, Hainan, Taiwan, Yunnan [India, Indonesia, Japan (Ryukyu Islands), Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, Nepal, Singapore, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Vietnam].


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