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独花兰Changnienia amoena

时间:2013-10-23 16:39来源:未知 作者:徐晔春 点击:
中文名( Chinese Name ):独花兰 学名( Scientific Name ): Changnienia amoena S. S. Chien 英文名( English Common Name ): 别名( Chinese Common Name ): 异名( Synonym ): 科属( Family Genus ): 兰科(Orchidaceae)独花兰属 形态特征
中文名(Chinese Name):独花兰
学名(Scientific Name):Changnienia amoena S. S. Chien
英文名(English Common Name):
别名(Chinese Common Name):
异名(Synonym):
科属(Family & Genus):兰科(Orchidaceae)独花兰属
形态特征(Description):假鳞茎近椭圆形或宽卵球形,长1.5-2.5厘米,宽1-2厘米,肉质,近淡黄白色,有2节,被膜质鞘。叶1枚,宽卵状椭圆形至宽椭圆形,长6.5-11.5厘米,宽5-8.2厘米,先端急尖或短渐尖,基部圆形或近截形,背面紫红色;叶柄长3.5-8厘米。花葶长10-17厘米,紫色,具2枚鞘;鞘膜质,下部抱茎,长3-4厘米;花苞片小,凋落;花梗和子房长7-9毫米;花大,白色而带肉红色或淡紫色晕,唇瓣有紫红色斑点;萼片长圆状披针形,长2.7-3.3厘米,宽7-9毫米,先端钝,有5-7脉;侧萼片稍斜歪;花瓣狭倒卵状披针形,略斜歪,长2.5-3厘米,宽1.2-1.4厘米,先端钝,具7脉;唇瓣略短于花瓣,3裂,基部有距;侧裂片直立,斜卵状三角形,较大,宽1-1.3厘米;中裂片平展,宽倒卵状方形,先端和上部边缘具不规则波状缺刻;唇盘上在两枚侧裂片之间具5枚褶片状附属物;距角状,稍弯曲,长2-2.3厘米,基部宽7-10毫米,向末端渐狭,末端钝;蕊柱长1.8-2.1厘米,两侧有宽翅。花期4月。
分布(Distribution):产陕西、江苏、安徽、浙江、江西、湖北、湖南和四川。生于400~1800米疏林下腐殖质丰富的土壤上或沿山谷荫蔽的地方。
用途(Use):
引自中国植物志英文版:FOC Vol. 25 Page 252   
Changnienia amoena S. S. Chien, Contr. Biol. Lab. Sci. Soc. China, Bot. Ser. 10: 90. 1935.
独花兰 du hua lan| Orchidaceae  | Changnienia
Pseudobulb nearly pale yellowish white, subellipsoid to broadly ovoid, 1.5-2.5 × 1-2 cm, fleshy, 2- or 3-noded, ± covered with membranous sheaths, with a solitary leaf at apex. Leaf blade spreading, recurved, abaxially purplish red, adaxially dark green, broadly ovate-elliptic to broadly elliptic, 6.5-11.5 × 5-8.2 cm, base rounded or subtruncate, apex acute or shortly acuminate; petiole-like base suberect, purple, channeled, 3.5-8 cm. Inflorescence purple, 10-17 cm, with 2 or 3 membranous, amplexicaul sheaths; sheaths 3-4 cm; floral bract deciduous, small. Flower spreading, large, white or pink, lip white with purplish red spots in basal 2/3; pedicel and ovary 7-9 mm. Sepals oblong-lanceolate, 27-33 × 7-9 mm, 5-7-veined, apex obtuse; lateral sepals slightly oblique. Petals narrowly obovate-lanceolate, slightly oblique, 25-30 × 12-14 mm, 7-veined, apex obtuse; lip oblate-orbicular in outline, slightly shorter than petals, 3-lobed, spurred at base; lateral lobes erect, ovate-triangular, oblique, 11-14 × 10-13 mm, apex acute; mid-lobe spreading horizontally, broadly obovate, ca. 8 × 12 mm, margin irregularly undulate-incised, apex truncate and emarginate; disk with 5 short lamellae between lateral lobes; spur slightly incurved, narrowly obconic, 20-23 × 7-10 mm, attenuate toward apex, apex obtuse. Column 18-21 mm, winged. Fl. Apr. 2n = 46*.
● Humus-rich soil in open forests, shaded places along valleys; 400-1100(-1800) m. Anhui, Hubei, Hunan, S Jiangsu, Jiangxi, Shaanxi, Sichuan, Zhejiang.


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