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头蕊兰 Cephalanthera longifolia

时间:2018-06-25 09:08来源:未知 作者:徐晔春 点击:
中文名 ( Chinese Name ): 头蕊兰 学名 ( Scientific Name ): Cephalanthera longifolia (Linn.) Fritsch 英文名 ( English Common Name ): 别名 ( Chinese Common Name ): 长叶头蕊兰 异名 ( Synonym ): Serapias helleborine f. longifolia
中文名Chinese Name):头蕊兰
学名Scientific Name):Cephalanthera longifolia (Linn.) Fritsch
英文名English Common Name):
别名Chinese Common Name):长叶头蕊兰
异名Synonym):Serapias helleborine f. longifolia L.  Serapias grandiflora var. ensifolia L. f.  Cephalanthera ensifolia (Sw.) Rich.  Cephalanthera ensifolia var. acuminata (Lindl.) T. Tang et F. T. Wang  Cephalanthera mairei Schltr.  Serapias ensifolia Murray, nom. illeg.  Serapias lonchophyllum L.f., nom. illeg.  Serapias nivea Vill., nom. illeg.  Serapias pallida Wahlenb.  Serapias xiphophyllum Ehrh. ex L.f.  Limodorum acuminatum (Wall. ex Lindl.) Kuntze  Cephalanthera conferta (B.Baumann & H.Baumann) Kreutz  Cephalanthera angustifolia Simonk.  Cephalanthera grandiflora Gray, nom. illeg.  Cephalanthera lonchophylla Rchb.f., nom. illeg.  Cephalanthera maravignae Tineo  Cephalanthera thomsonii Rchb.f.  Cephalanthera xiphophyllum Rchb.f., nom. illeg.  Cymbidium xiphophyllum (Ehrh. ex L.f.) Sw.  Epipactis grandifolia All.  Epipactis pallens Sw., nom. illeg.  Epipactis pallida Sw.  Epipactis xiphophylla (Ehrh. ex L.f.) Sw.  Serapias helleborine var. longifolia L.  Cephalanthera longifolia var. rosea Perko  Cephalanthera ensifolia var. maravignae (Tineo) Nyman  Cephalanthera longifolia subsp. conferta B.Baumann & H.Baumann  Cephalanthera longifolia f. angustifolia Maire & Weiller, nom. illeg.  Cephalanthera longifolia f. latifolia (Maire) Maire & Weiller  Cephalanthera longifolia var. pilosa Harz  Cephalanthera xiphophyllum var. latifolia Maire  Cephalanthera longifolia var. latifolia (Maire) D.Rivera & Lopez Velez  Cephalanthera ensifolia var. cesari-gonzalezii Rivas Goday & Bellot  Cephalanthera longifolia f. pilosa (Harz) Soó  Cephalanthera longifolia f. pumila Asch. & Graebn.  Cephalanthera longifolia f. longibracteata (Harz) Asch. & Graebn.  Cephalanthera longifolia var. gibbosa Boiss.  Epipactis longifolia var. gibbosa (Boiss.) W.Zimm.  Epipactis longifolia var. pilosa Harz  Epipactis longifolia var. longibracteata Harz 
科属Family & Genus):兰科(Orchidaceae)头蕊兰属
形态特征Description):地生草本,高20-47厘米。茎直立,下部具3-5枚排列疏松的鞘。叶4-7枚;叶片披针形、宽披针形或长圆状披针形,长(2.5-)4-13厘米,宽0.5-2.5厘米,先端长渐尖或渐尖,基部抱茎。总状花序长1.5-6厘米,具2-13朵花;花苞片线状披针形至狭三角形,长2-6毫米,但最下面1-2枚叶状,长可达5-13厘米;花白色,稍开放或不开放;萼片狭菱状椭圆形或狭椭圆状披针形,长1.1-1.6厘米,宽3.5-4.5毫米,先端渐尖或近急尖,具5脉;花瓣近倒卵形,长7-8毫米,宽约4毫米,先端急尖或具短尖;唇瓣长5-6毫米,3裂,基部具囊;侧裂片近卵状三角形,多少围抱蕊柱;中裂片三角状心形,长3-3.5毫米,宽5-6毫米,上面具3-4条纵褶片,近顶端处密生乳突;唇瓣基部的囊短而钝,包藏于侧萼片基部之内;蕊柱长4-5毫米。蒴果椭圆形,长1.7-2厘米,宽6-8毫米。花期5-6月,果期9-10月。
分布(Distribution):产山西、陕西、甘肃、河南、湖北、四川、云南和西藏,生于海拔1000-3300米的林下、灌丛中、沟边或草丛中。广泛分布于欧洲、中亚、北非至喜马拉雅地区。
用途(Use):
引自中国植物志英文版:FOC Vol. 25 Page 175, 177   
Cephalanthera longifolia (Linnaeus) Fritsch, Oesterr. Bot. Z. 38: 81. 1888.
头蕊兰 tou rui lan| Orchidaceae  | Cephalanthera
Serapias helleborine Linnaeus subsp. longifolia Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 2: 950. 1753; Cephalanthera acuminata Lindley; C. ensifolia (Swartz) Richard var. acuminata (Lindley) Tang & F. T. Wang; C. mairei Schlechter; C. thomsonii H. G. Reichenbach.
Plants leafy, autotrophic, 20-50 cm tall. Stem slender to somewhat robust, with 3-5 loosely clasping basal sheaths, 4-7-leaved. Leaves elliptic, lanceolate, or oblong-lanceolate, 4-16 × 0.5-3 cm, apex acuminate to long acuminate. Inflorescence subdensely 2-20-flowered; rachis 1.5-6 cm; floral bracts linear-lanceolate to narrowly triangular, basal 1 or 2 usually foliaceous and to ca. 70 mm, distal ones 2-6 mm. Flowers weakly spreading, white, 1-1.5 cm; pedicel and ovary 6-10 mm. Sepals narrowly rhombic-elliptic or narrowly elliptic-lanceolate, 11-16 × 3.5-4.5 mm, 5-veined, apex acuminate or subacute. Petals subobovate, 7-8 × ca. 4 mm, 5-7-veined, apex acute or mucronate; lip 5-7 × 6-9 mm, 2-partite; hypochile saccate, enclosed within bases of lateral sepals, with a small orange patch in middle of disk; hypochile lobes erect and embracing column, subovate-triangular, 3-4 mm, apex subacute; epichile triangular-cordate, 3-4 × 5-6 mm, with 3-5 orange lamellae, densely papillose toward apex, apex obtuse to acute. Column 4-6 mm, with 2 small oblong wings; anther 2-2.5 mm; stigma stalked. Capsule elliptic, 1.7-2 × 0.6-0.8 cm. Fl. May-Jun, fr. Sep-Oct. 2n = 16, 32, 34, 34 + 2B, 42.
Forests, thickets, along streams, open grasslands; 1000-3600 m. S Gansu, W Henan, W Hubei, S Shaanxi, S Shanxi, W Sichuan, S and SE Xizang, NW Yunnan [Bhutan, India, Kashmir, Myanmar, Nepal, Pakistan; N Africa, SW Asia, Europe].
The extensive extra-Chinese synonymy is not cited here.




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