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三棱虾脊兰 Calanthe tricarinata

时间:2013-10-23 16:13来源:未知 作者:徐晔春 点击:
中文名( Chinese Name ):三棱虾脊兰 学名( Scientific Name ): Calanthe tricarinata Lindl. 英文名( English Common Name ): 别名( Chinese Common Name ): 异名( Synonym ): Calanthe lamellata Hayata Calanthe megalopha Franch. Paracal
中文名(Chinese Name):三棱虾脊兰
学名(Scientific Name):Calanthe tricarinata Lindl.
英文名(English Common Name):
别名(Chinese Common Name):
异名(Synonym):Calanthe lamellata Hayata  Calanthe megalopha Franch.  Paracalanthe lamellata (Hayata) Kudô  Paracalanthe megalophora (Franch.) Miyabe & Kudô  Paracalanthe torifera (Schltr.) Kudô  Paracalanthe tricarinata (Lindl.) Kudô  Calanthe megalophora Franch.  Calanthe occidentalis Lindl.  Calanthe pantlingii Schltr.  Calanthe torifera Schltr.  Alismorkis tricarinata (Lindl.) Kuntze  Calanthe brevicornu var. megalophora (Franch.) Finet  Alismorchis tricarinata (Lindl.) Kuntze
科属Family & Genus):兰科(Orchidaceae)虾脊兰属
形态特征Description):根状茎不明显。假鳞茎圆球状,粗约2厘米,具3枚鞘和3-4枚叶。假茎粗壮,长4-15厘米,粗1-2.5厘米;鞘大型,先端钝,最下1枚最小,长约2厘米,向上逐渐变长。叶在花期时尚未展开,薄纸质,椭圆形或倒卵状披针形,通常长20-30厘米,宽5-11厘米,先端锐尖或渐尖,基部收狭为鞘状柄,边缘波状,具4-5条两面隆起的主脉,背面密被短毛。花葶从假茎顶端的叶间发出,直立,粗壮,高出叶层外,长达60厘米,粗达1.5厘米,被短毛,花序之下具1至多枚膜质、卵状披针形的苞片状叶;总状花序长3-20厘米,疏生少数至多数花;花苞片宿存,膜质,卵状披针形,长5-10毫米,基部上方宽约3毫米,无毛,先端渐尖;花梗和子房长1-2厘米,密披短毛,子房棒状;花张开,质地薄,萼片和花瓣浅黄色;萼片相似,长圆状披针形,长16-18毫米,中部宽5-8毫米,先端渐尖或有时稍钝,基部收狭,具5-8条脉,背面基部疏生毛;花瓣倒卵状披针形,长11-15毫米,中部宽3-5毫米,先端锐尖或稍钝,基部收狭为爪,具3条脉,无毛;唇瓣红褐色,基部合生于整个蕊柱翅上,3裂;侧裂片小,耳状或近半圆形,长约4毫米,宽4-5毫米;中裂片肾形,长8-10毫米,宽10-18毫米,先端微凹并具短尖,边缘强烈波状;唇盘上具3-5条鸡冠状褶片,无距;蕊柱粗短,长约6毫米,腹面疏生毛;蕊喙2裂;裂片三角形,长约1毫米,先端急尖;药帽在前端收狭呈喙状;花粉团狭倒卵状球形,长约2毫米,具明显的柄;粘盘小,椭圆形,长约1毫米。花期5-6月。
分布(Distribution):产陕西、甘肃、台湾、湖北、四川、贵州、云南和西藏。生于海拔1600~3500米的山坡草地上或混交林下。东南亚及日本也有。
用途(Use):
引自中国植物志英文版:FOC Vol. 25 Page 293, 297   
Calanthe tricarinata Lindley, Gen. Sp. Orchid. Pl. 252. 1833.
三棱虾脊兰 san leng xia ji lan| Orchidaceae  | Calanthe
Alismorkis tricarinata (Lindley) Kuntze; Calanthe lamellata Hayata; C. megalopha Franchet; C. undulata Schlechter; Paracalanthe lamellata (Hayata) Kudô; P. megalopha (Franchet) Miyabe & Kudô; P. tricarinata (Lindley) Kudô.
Plants 35-50 cm tall. Rhizome inconspicuous. Pseudobulbs globose, ca. 2 cm in diam., with 3 sheaths. Leaves 3 or 4, basal, not well developed at anthesis, not deciduous; blade elliptic or obovate-lanceolate, 20-30 × 5-11 cm, abaxially densely puberulent, margin undulate, apex acute or acuminate; petiole-like base sheathing, forming a stout pseudostem 4-15 cm long and 1-2.5 cm in diam.; sheaths large, apex obtuse, lowest one ca. 2 cm, upper sheaths longer. Scape arising from leaf axil, erect, to 60 cm, to 1.5 cm in diam., stout, puberulent, with several to many ovate-lanceolate sterile bracts; rachis 3-20 cm, laxly few to many flowered; floral bracts persistent, ovate-lanceolate, 5-10 mm, membranous, glabrous. Flowers pale yellow, with reddish brown lip; pedicel and ovary 10-20 mm, puberulent. Sepals similar, oblong-lanceolate, 16-18 × 5-8 mm, abaxially sparsely puberulent at base, 5-8-veined, apex acuminate. Petals obovate-lanceolate, 11-15 × 3-5 mm, 3-veined, apex acute or subobtuse; lip adnate to base of column wings, reddish brown, 10-16 × 7-15 mm, spurless, 3-lobed; lateral lobes auriculate or nearly suborbicular, small, ca. 4 × 4-5 mm; mid-lobe reniform, 8-10 × 10-15 mm, margin strongly undulate, apex emarginate and mucronate in sinus; disk with 3-5 crested lamellae. Column ca. 6 mm, thick, ventrally sparsely puberulent; rostellum 2-lobed; anther cap beaked; pollinia narrowly obovoid-globose, ca. 2 mm, with conspicuous caudicles; viscidium elliptic, small, ca. 1 mm. Fl. May-Jun. 2n = 40, 42, 60.
Grassy slopes, forests; 1300-3500 m. S Gansu, Guizhou, Hubei, S Shaanxi, Sichuan, Taiwan, SE Xizang, Yunnan [Bhutan, NE India, Japan, Kashmir, Nepal].




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