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长距虾瘠兰Calanthe sylvatica

时间:2013-10-23 16:12来源:未知 作者:徐晔春 点击:
中文名( Chinese Name ):长距虾瘠兰 学名( Scientific Name ): Calanthe sylvatica (Thou.) Lindl. 英文名( English Common Name ): 别名( Chinese Common Name ): 异名( Synonym ): Calanthe kintaroi Yamam. Calanthe longicalcarata Hayat
中文名(Chinese Name):长距虾瘠兰
学名(Scientific Name):Calanthe sylvatica (Thou.) Lindl.
英文名(English Common Name):
别名(Chinese Common Name):
异名(Synonym):Calanthe kintaroi Yamam.  Calanthe longicalcarata Hayata ex Yamam.  Bletia masuca D. Don  Calanthe masuca var. sinensis Rendle  Calanthe masuca (D. Don) Lindl.  Calanthe textori Miq.  Calanthe seikooensis K. Yamam.  Centrosis sylvatica Thou.  Bletia sylvatica (Thouars) Bojer  Zoduba masuca (D.Don) Buch.-Ham.  Calanthe candida Bosser  Calanthe corymbosa (Thouars) Lindl.  Calanthe curtisii Rchb.f.  Calanthe delphinioides Kraenzl.  Calanthe emarginata (Blume) Lindl.  Calanthe natalensis (Rchb.f.) Rchb.f.  Calanthe neglecta Schltr.  Calanthe purpurea Lindl.  Calanthe schliebenii Mansf.  Calanthe stolzii Schltr.  Calanthe sylvestris Lindl. ex Steud.  Calanthe versicolor Lindl.  Calanthe violacea Rolfe  Calanthe volkensii Rolfe  Calanthe wightii Rchb.f.  Centrosia aubertii A.Rich.  Centrosis corymbosa Thouars  Centrosis plantaginea Thouars  Alismorkis centrosis (Thouars) Steud.  Alismorkis emarginata (Blume) Kuntze  Alismorkis masuca (D.Don) Kuntze  Alismorkis natalensis (Rchb.f.) Kuntze  Alismorkis plantaginea (Thouars) Kuntze  Alismorkis purpurea (Lindl.) Kuntze  Alismorkis textori (Miq.) Kuntze  Amblyglottis emarginata Blume  Calanthe furcata f. masuca (D.Don) M.Hiroe  Calanthe furcata f. textori (Miq.) M.Hiroe  Calanthe masuca f. albiflora (Ida) K.Nakaj.  Calanthe masuca var. purpurea (Lindl.) Rao & S.R.Rathore  Calanthe okinawensis f. albiflora Ida  Calanthe sylvatica var. geerinckiana Stévart  Calanthe sylvatica var. natalensis Rchb.f.  Calanthe sylvatica var. pallidipetala Schltr.  Calanthe textori f. albiflora (Ida) Hatus.  Calanthe textori var. longicalcarata (Hayata ex Yamam.) Garay & H.R.Sweet  Alismorkis textorii (Miq.) Kuntze  Calanthe textorii f. albiflora (Ida) Hatus.  Calanthe pleiochroma Rchb.f.  Calanthe textorii var. longicalcarata (Hayata ex Yamam.) Garay & H.R.Sweet  Calanthe furcata f. textorii (Miq.) M.Hiroe  Calanthe textorii Miq.  Alismorchis emarginata (Lindl.) Kuntze  Alismorchis masuca (D. Don) Kuntze  Alismorchis natalensis (Rchb. f.) Kuntze  Alismorchis pleiochroma (Rchb. f.) Kuntze  Alismorchis purpurea (Lindl.) Kuntze  Alismorchis textori (Miq.) Kuntze  Alismorkis pleiochroma (Rchb.f.) Kuntze
科属(Family & Genus):兰科(Orchidaceae)虾脊兰属
形态特征(Description):植株高达80厘米,无明显的根状茎。假鳞茎狭圆锥形,长1-2厘米,基部粗1厘米,具3-6枚叶,无明显的假茎。叶在花期全部展开,椭圆形至倒卵形,长20-40厘米,宽达10.5厘米,先端急尖或渐尖,基部收狭为柄,边缘全缘,背面密被短柔毛;叶柄长11-23厘米。花葶从叶丛中抽出,直立,粗壮,长45-75厘米,中部以下具2枚紧抱花序柄的筒状鞘;总状花序疏生数朵花,其下具数枚苞片状叶;花苞片宿存,披针形,长1-1.8厘米,近基部宽5-8毫米,先端急尖,密被短柔毛;花梗和子房长达3.5厘米,有时子房稍呈棒状,密被短毛;花淡紫色,唇瓣常变成橘黄色;中萼片椭圆形,长18-23毫米,中部宽6-10毫米,先端锐尖,具5-7条脉,背面疏被短柔毛;侧萼片长圆形,长2-2.8厘米,中部宽6-9毫米,先端急尖并呈短尾状,具5-7条脉,背面疏被短柔毛;花瓣倒卵形或宽长圆形,长15-20毫米,中部以上宽9-12毫米,先端稍钝或近锐尖,具5条脉,其两边外侧的主脉分枝;唇瓣基部与整个蕊柱翅合生,3裂;侧裂片镰状披针形,长约5毫米,基部宽1.5-2毫米,向先端变狭,先端稍钝;中裂片扇形或肾形,宽1-1.5厘米,先端凹缺或浅2裂,裂口中央略有凸尖,前端边缘全缘或具缺刻,基部具短爪;唇盘基部具3列不等长的黄色鸡冠状的小瘤;距圆筒状,长20-5-5厘米,上下等粗或中部以下稍变粗,伸直或稍弧曲,末端钝,外面疏被短毛;蕊柱长5毫米,上端扩大,近无毛;蕊喙2裂;裂片斜卵状三角形,长0.7毫米,先端锐尖;药帽在前端稍收狭,先端截形;药床宽大;花粉团狭倒卵球形,等大,长约2毫米;粘盘小,近长圆形。花期4-9月。
分布(Distribution):产台湾、广东、香港、广西、云南和西藏。生于海拔800~2000米的山坡林下或山谷河边等阴湿处。东南亚至南部非洲和马达加斯加也有。
用途(Use):
引自中国植物志英文版:FOC Vol. 25 Page 294, 300,301
Calanthe sylvatica (Thouars) Lindley, Gen. Sp. Orchid. Pl. 250. 1833.
长距虾脊兰 chang ju xia ji lan | Orchidaceae  | Calanthe
Centrosis sylvatica Thouars, Hist. Orchid. ad t. 35, 36. 1822; Alismorkis masuca (D. Don) Kuntze; A. textorii (Miquel) Kuntze; Bletia masuca D. Don; B. sylvatica (Thouars) Bojer; Calanthe furcata Bateman ex Lindley f. masuca (D. Don) M. Hiroe; C. furcata f. textorii (Miquel) M. Hiroe; C. kintaroi Yamamoto; C. longicalcarata Hayata ex Yamamoto; C. masuca (D. Don) Lindley; C. masuca var. sinensis Rendle; C. seikooensis Yamamoto; C. textorii Miquel; C. textorii var. longicalcarata (Hayata ex Yamamoto) Garay & H. R. Sweet; Zoduba masuca (D. Don) Buchanan-Hamilton.
Plants to 80 cm tall, without distinct rhizome. Pseudobulbs conic, 1-2 × ca. 1 cm. Leaves 3-6, well developed and spreading at anthesis, not deciduous; blade elliptic to obovate, 20-40 × ca. 10.5 cm, abaxially sparsely pubescent, apex acute or acuminate; petiole-like base 11-23 cm. Scape arising from leaf axil, erect, 45-75 cm, stout, with 2 tubular sheaths below middle; rachis laxly to subdensely many flowered; floral bracts persistent, lanceolate, 10-18 mm, densely puberulent. Flowers pale pinkish purple with purple lip sometimes flushed orange; pedicel and ovary ca. 35 mm, densely puberulent. Dorsal sepal elliptic, 18-23 × 6-10 mm, abaxially sparsely puberulent, 5-7-veined, apex acute; lateral sepals oblong, 20-28 × 6-9 mm, abaxially sparsely puberulent, 5-7-veined, apex acute and shortly caudate. Petals obovate or broadly oblong, 15-20 × 9-12 mm, 5-veined, apex obtuse or subacute; lip adnate to entire length of column wings, 11-17 × 6-14 mm, 3-lobed; lateral lobes falcate-lanceolate, ca. 5 × 1.5-2 mm, attenuate toward apex; mid-lobe flabellate or reniform, 10-14 mm wide, base shortly clawed, apex emarginate or shallowly 2-lobed; disk with 3 rows of small, yellow, crested warts at base; spur cylindric, 25-50 mm, outside sparsely puberulent, apex obtuse. Column ca. 5 mm, dilated at apex, nearly glabrous; rostellum 2-lobed; lobes ca. 0.7 mm; pollinia narrowly obovoid, equal in size, ca. 2 mm; viscidium suboblong, small. Fl. Apr-Sep. 2n = 20, 40, 42, 52.
Forests, damp places on riversides, along valleys; 800-2000 m. Guangdong, N and SE Guangxi, Hunan, Taiwan, SE Xizang, S and SE Yunnan [Bhutan, India, Indonesia, Japan, Malaysia, Myanmar, Nepal, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Vietnam; Africa, Madagascar].




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