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山血丹 Ardisia lindleyana

时间:2013-10-18 13:45来源:未知 作者:徐晔春 点击:
中文名( Chinese Name ):山血丹 学名( Scientific Name ): Ardisia lindleyana D. Dietr. 英文名( English Common Name ): 别名( Chinese Common Name ): 沿海紫金牛、细罗伞树 异名( Synonym ): Ardisia kwangtungensis Walker Ardisia tsan
中文名(Chinese Name):山血丹
学名(Scientific Name):Ardisia lindleyana D. Dietr.  
英文名(English Common Name):
别名(Chinese Common Name):沿海紫金牛、细罗伞树
异名(Synonym):Ardisia kwangtungensis Walker  Ardisia tsangii E. Walker  Ardisia adenopes Miau  Bladhia punctata (Lindl.) Nakai  Tinus punctata (Lindl.) Kuntze
科属(Family & Genus):紫金牛科(Myrsinaceae)紫金牛属
形态特征(Description):灌木或小灌木,高1-2米;茎幼时被细微柔毛,无皱纹,除侧生特殊花枝外,无分枝。叶片革质或近坚纸质,长圆形至椭圆状披针形,顶端急尖或渐尖,稀钝,基部楔形,长10-15厘米,宽2-3.5厘米,近全缘或具微波状齿,齿尖具边缘腺点,边缘反卷,叶面无毛,中、侧脉微隆起,背面被细微柔毛,脉隆起,除边缘外其余无腺点或腺点极疏,侧脉8-12对,连成远离边缘的边缘腺;叶柄长1-1.5厘米,被微柔毛。亚伞形花序,单生或稀为复伞形花序,着生于侧生特殊花枝顶端;花枝长3-11厘米,顶端下弯,且具少数退化叶或叶状苞片,被细微柔毛;花梗长8-12毫米;果时达2.5厘米;花长约5毫米,花萼仅基部连合,被微柔毛,萼片长圆状披针形或卵形,顶端急尖,长2-3毫米,具缘毛或几无毛,具腺点;花瓣白色,椭圆状卵形,顶端圆形,具明显的腺点,里面被微柔毛,外面无毛;雄蕊较花瓣略短,花药披针形,顶端具小尖头,背部具腺点;雌蕊与花瓣等长,子房卵珠形,被微柔毛,具腺点;胚珠5枚,1轮。果球形,直径约6毫米,深红色,微肉质,具疏腺点。花期5-7月,少数于4、8、11月,果期10-12月,有时有的植株上部枝条开花,下部枝条果熟。
分布(Distribution):产浙江、江西、福建、湖南、广东、广西,生于海拔270-1150米的山谷、山坡密林下,水旁和荫湿的地方。
用途(Use):根可调经、通经、活血、祛风、止痛,亦作洗药,可去无名肿毒。有的亦用于妇女不孕症。
引自中国植物志英文版:FOC Vol. 15 Page 19     
Ardisia lindleyana D. Dietrich, Syn. Pl. 1: 617. 1839.
山血丹 shan xue dan| Myrsinaceae  | Ardisia
Ardisia adenopes Miau; A. kwangtungensis E. Walker; A. punctata Lindley (Sep 1824), not Jack ex Wallich (Mar-Jun 1824); A. tsangii E. Walker; Bladhia punctata (Lindley) Nakai; Tinus punctata (Lindley) Kuntze.
Shrubs 1-2 m tall, without creeping rhizomes; densely and minutely reddish puberulent on branchlets, petioles, abaxial leaf surface, and inflorescence rachis. Branchlets terete, ca. 2.5 mm in diam. Petiole narrowly marginate, 1-1.5 cm; leaf blade oblong to lanceolate or oblanceolate, (7-)10-12(-18) × (1.5-)2-3.5(-4) cm, leathery or papery, glabrous, base cuneate, margin subentire or undulate, rarely serrate, slightly revolute, prominently punctate, with large vascularized marginal nodules, apex acute or acuminate, rarely obtuse; lateral veins 8-13 on each side of midrib, slightly raised adaxially, marginal vein conspicuous. Umbels on curved ends of specialized lateral branches 3-11 cm. Flowers papery, white, rarely pink, 5-6 mm. Pedicel 0.8-1.2 cm, to 2.5 cm in fruit. Sepals oblong to lanceolate or narrowly ovate, 2-3 mm, punctate, puberulent, margin entire, usually ciliate, apex broadly acute to obtuse. Petals nearly free, elliptic or ovate, punctate, glabrous abaxially, yellow glandular granulose adaxially at base, apex obtuse. Stamens shorter than petals; filaments shorter than anthers; anthers lanceolate, punctate dorsally, longitudinally dehiscent, apex apiculate. Pistil subequalling petals; ovary minutely puberulent, punctate; ovules ca. 5, uniseriate. Fruit dark red, globose, ca. 6 mm in diam., sparsely punctate, somewhat fleshy. Fl. May-Jul, fr. Oct-Dec.
Dense mixed forests, hills, valleys, along streams, dark damp places; 300-1200 m. Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi, Hunan, Jiangxi, Zhejiang [N Vietnam].


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