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木豆Cajanus cajan

时间:2018-08-14 08:25来源:未知 作者:徐晔春 点击:
中文名( Chinese Name ): 木豆 学名( Scientific Name ): Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp. 英文名( English Common Name ): pigeonpea 别名( Chinese Common Name ): 异名( Synonym ): Cajanus indicus Spreng. Cajanus flavus DC. Cajan inodoru
中文名(Chinese Name):木豆
学名(Scientific Name):Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp.
英文名(English Common Name):pigeonpea
别名(Chinese Common Name):
异名(Synonym):Cajanus indicus Spreng.  Cajanus flavus DC.  Cajan inodorum Medik.  Cytisus pseudocajan Jacquem.  Cajanus bicolor DC.  Cajanus striatus Bojer  Cajanus inodorum Medik.  Cajan indorum Medik.  Phaseolus balicus L.  Cytisus pseudo-cajan Jacq.  Cajanus pseudo-cajan (Jacq.)Schinz & Guillaumin  Cajanus luteus Bello  Cajanus inodorus Medik.  Cajanus obcordifolius V.Singh  Cajanus indicus var. bicolor (DC.)Kuntze  Cajanus indicus var. flavus (DC.)Kuntze  Cajanus indicus var. maculatus Kuntze  Cajanum thora Raf.  Cajanus cajan f. bicolor (DC.) Baker
科属(Family & Genus):蝶形花科,Fabaceae木豆属
形态特征(Description):直立灌木,1-3米。多分枝,小枝有明显纵棱,被灰色短柔毛。叶具羽状3小叶;托叶小,卵状披针形,长2-3毫米;叶柄长1.5-5厘米,上面具浅沟,下面具细纵棱,略被短柔毛;小叶纸质,披针形至椭圆形,长5-10厘米,宽1.5-3厘米,先端渐尖或急尖,常有细凸尖,上面被极短的灰白色短柔毛。下面较密,呈灰白色,有不明显的黄色腺点;小托叶极小;小叶柄长1-2毫米,被毛。总状花序长3-7厘米;总花梗长2-4厘米;花数朵生于花序顶部或近顶部;苞片卵状椭圆形;花萼钟状,长达7毫米,裂片三角形或披针形,花序、总花梗、苞片、花萼均被灰黄色短柔毛;花冠黄色,长约为花萼的3倍,旗瓣近圆形,背面有紫褐色纵线纹,基部有附属体及内弯的耳,翼瓣微倒卵形,有短耳,龙骨瓣先端钝,微内弯;雄蕊二体,对旗瓣的1枚离生,其余9枚合生;子房被毛,有胚珠数颗,花柱长,线状,无毛,柱头头状。荚果线状长圆形,长4-7厘米,宽6-11毫米,于种子间具明显凹入的斜横槽,被灰褐色短柔毛,先端渐尖,具长的尖头;种子3-6颗,近圆形,稍扁,种皮暗红色,有时有褐色斑点。花、果期2-11月。
分布Distribution):产云南、四川、江西、湖南、广西、广东、海南、浙江、福建、台湾、江苏。原产地或为印度,现世界上热带和亚热带地区普遍有栽培,极耐瘠薄干旱,在印度栽培尤广,为平民的主粮和菜肴之一,常作包点馅料,叫豆蓉;叶可作家畜饲料、绿肥。根入药能清热解毒。亦为紫胶虫的优良寄主植物。
用途Use):
引自植物志英文版FOC Vol. 10 Page 230, 231
Cajanus cajan (Linnaeus) Huth, Helios. 11: 133. 1893.
木豆 mu dou | Fabaceae  | Cajanus
Cytisus cajan Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 2: 739. 1753; Cajanus bicolor Candolle; C. cajan var. bicolor (Candolle) Purseglove; C. cajan var. flavus (Candolle) Purseglove; C. flavus Candolle; C. indicus Sprengel; C. indicus var. bicolor (Candolle) Kuntze; C. indicus var. flavus (Candolle) Kuntze; C. indicus var. macu­latus Kuntze.
Shrubs, erect, 1-3 m tall. Branchlets gray pubescent. Leaves pinnately 3-foliolate; stipules small, ovate-lanceolate, 0.2-3 mm; petiole 1.5-5 cm, sparsely pubescent; stipels ex­tremely small; petiolules 1-5 mm, hairy; leaflets lanceolate to elliptic, 2.8-10 × 0.5-3.5 cm, papery, abaxial surface densely pubescent and with inconspicuous yellow glands, adaxial sur­face pubescent, apex acute or acuminate, usually mucronate. Raceme 3-7 cm; peduncle 2-4 cm; few flowers terminal or al­most terminal; bracts ovate-elliptic. Calyx campanulate, 5-7 mm; lobes triangular or lanceolate, pubescent. Corolla yellow, ca. 3 × calyx in length; standard suborbicular, with inflexed auricle; wings slightly obovate, with short auricle; keel apex ob­tuse, slightly inflexed. Ovary hairy; ovules several; style long, linear, glabrous; stigma capitate. Legume linear-oblong, ± in­flated, 4-8.5 × 0.6-1.2 cm, dun pubescent, apex beaked, acumi­nate, long mucronate. Seeds 3-6, gray, sometimes with brown spots, subspherical, ca. 5 mm in diam., slightly compressed; strophiole absent. Fl. and fr. Jan-Nov. 2n = 22.
Roadsides, hills; 100-900 m. Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi, Gui­zhou, Hainan, Hunan, Jiangxi, Sichuan, Taiwan, Yunnan, Zhejiang [probably originally from tropical Asia, now cultivated worldwide].
Cajanus cajan is used for food ("Pigeon Pea"), herbage, green fertilizer, and medicine. It is particularly valued in areas of low erratic rainfall.




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