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白芷Angelica dahurica

时间:2018-06-23 13:55来源:未知 作者:徐晔春 点击:
中文名( Chinese Name ): 白芷 学名( Scientific Name ): Angelica dahurica (Fisch. ex Hoffm.) Benth. et Hook. f. ex Franch. et 英文名( English Common Name ): 别名( Chinese Common Name ): 兴安白芷、河北独活 异名( Synonym ): Ange
中文名(Chinese Name):白芷
学名(Scientific Name):Angelica dahurica (Fisch. ex Hoffm.) Benth. et Hook. f. ex Franch. et
英文名(English Common Name):
别名(Chinese Common Name):兴安白芷、河北独活
异名(Synonym):Angelica porphyrocaulis Nakai et Katagawa  Callisace dahurica Fisch. ex Hoffm.  Angelica porphyrocaulis var. albiflora (Maxim.) Makino  Angelica tschiliensis H. Wolff  Angelica macrocarpa H. Wolff  Angelica pubescens var. glabra Y.Yabe  Thysselinum davuricum Spreng. 
科属(Family & Genus):伞形科(Umbelliferae)当归属
形态特征(Description):多年生高大草本,高1-2.5米。根圆柱形,有分枝,径3-5厘米,外表皮黄褐色至褐色,有浓烈气味。茎基部径2-5厘米,有时可达7-8厘米,通常带紫色,中空,有纵长沟纹。基生叶一回羽状分裂,有长柄,叶柄下部有管状抱茎边缘膜质的叶鞘;茎上部叶二至三回羽状分裂,叶片轮廓为卵形至三角形,长15-30厘米,宽10-25厘米,叶柄长至15厘米,下部为囊状膨大的膜质叶鞘,无毛或稀有毛,常带紫色;末回裂片长圆形,卵形或线状披针形,多无柄,长2.5-7厘米,宽1-2.5厘米,急尖,边缘有不规则的白色软骨质粗锯齿,具短尖头,基部两侧常不等大,沿叶轴下延成翅状;花序下方的叶简化成无叶的、显著膨大的囊状叶鞘,外面无毛。复伞形花序顶生或侧生,直径10-30厘米,花序梗长5-20厘米,花序梗、伞辐和花柄均有短糙毛;伞辐18-40,中央主伞有时伞辐多至70;总苞片通常缺或有1-2,成长卵形膨大的鞘;小总苞片5-10余,线状披针形,膜质,花白色;无萼齿;花瓣倒卵形,顶端内曲成凹头状;子房无毛或有短毛;花柱比短圆锥状的花柱基长2倍。果实长圆形至卵圆形,黄棕色,有时带紫色,长4-7毫米,宽4-6毫米,无毛,背棱扁,厚而钝圆,近海绵质,远较棱槽为宽,侧棱翅状,较果体狭;棱槽中有油管1,合生面油管2。花期7-8月,果期8-9月。
分布(Distribution):产我国东北及华北地区,常生长于林下,林缘,溪旁、灌丛及山谷草地。
用途(Use):根在东北各省有些地区称“大活”或“独活”入药,能发表、祛风除湿,用于治疗伤风头痛,风湿性关节疼痛及腰脚酸痛等症。根的水煎剂有杀虫、灭菌作用,对防治菜青虫、大豆蚜虫、小麦杆锈病等有一定效果。嫩茎剥皮后可供食用。
引自中国植物志英文版:FOC Vol. 14 Page 169 
Angelica dahurica (Fischer ex Hoffmann) Bentham & J. D. Hooker ex Franchet & Savatier, Enum. Pl. Jap. 1: 187. 1875.
白芷 bai zhi| Apiaceae  | Angelica
Plants perennial 1–2.5 m, stout. Root cylindric, brown, 3–5 cm thick, strongly aromatic. Stem purplish green, 2–5(–7–8) cm thick, ribbed, pubescent above. Basal and lower leaves long-petiolate, sheaths oblong-inflated, glabrous; blade triangular-ovate, 30–50 × 25–40 cm, 2–3-ternate-pinnate; leaflets sessile, oblong-elliptic to oblong-lanceolate, 4–10 × 1–4 cm, base slightly decurrent, margin white-cartilaginous and coarse-cuspidate-serrate, apex acute, pubescent along nerves adaxially. Upper leaves reduced, sheaths saccate-inflated, bladeless. Umbels 10–30 cm across; peduncles 5–20 cm, scabrous; bracts absent or 1–2, like uppermost leaves; rays 18–40(–70), short-hairy; bracteoles many, linear-lanceolate, scarious; pedicels many, scabrous. Calyx teeth obsolete. Petals white, obovate and notched. Ovary glabrous or pubescent. Fruit suborbicular, 4–7 × 4–6 mm; dorsal ribs prominent, obtusely thick-rounded, much wider than furrows, lateral ribs broad-winged; vittae 1 in each furrow, 2 on commissure. Fl. Jul–Aug, fr. Aug–Sep.
Forest margins, valley grasslands, streamsides; 500–1000 m. Hebei, Heilongjiang, Jilin, Liaoning, Shaanxi, N Taiwan [Japan, Korea, Russia (Siberia)].
This species is widely cultivated in N China, where the roots are used as the important traditional Chinese medicine “bai zhi” and as a substitute, known as “dong bei da huo,” for the traditional Chinese medicine “du huo” (see Angelica biserrata). Two cultivars are common: A. dahurica ‘Hangbaizhi’ and A. dahurica ‘Qibaizhi.’
 



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