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北美毛车前Plantago virginica

时间:2013-10-30 12:39来源:未知 作者:徐晔春 点击:
中文名( Chinese Name ):北美毛车前 学名( Scientific Name ): Plantago virginica L. 英文名( English Common Name ): Virginia plantain 别名( Chinese Common Name ): 毛车前、北美车前 异名( Synonym ): Plantago virginica var. virides
中文名(Chinese Name):北美毛车前
学名(Scientific Name):Plantago virginica L.
英文名(English Common Name):Virginia plantain
别名(Chinese Common Name):毛车前、北美车前
异名(Synonym):Plantago virginica var. viridescens Fern.
科属(Family & Genus):车前科(Plantaginaceae)车前属
形态特征(Description):一年生或二年生草本。直根纤细,有细侧根。根茎短。叶基生呈莲座状,平卧至直立;叶片倒披针形至倒卵状披针形,长(2-)3-18厘米,宽0.5-4厘米,先端急尖或近圆形,边缘波状、疏生牙齿或近全缘,基部狭楔形,下延至叶柄,两面及叶柄散生白色柔毛,脉(3-)5条;叶柄长0.5-5厘米,具翅或无翅,基部鞘状。花序1至多数;花序梗直立或弓曲上升,长4-20厘米,较纤细,有纵条纹,密被开展的白色柔毛,中空;穗状花序细圆柱状,长(1-)3-18厘米,下部常间断;苞片披针形或狭椭圆形,长2-2.5毫米,龙骨突宽厚,宽于侧片,背面及边缘有白色疏柔毛。萼片与苞片等长或略短,前对萼片倒卵圆形,龙骨突较宽,不达顶端,先端钝,两侧片不等宽,先端及背面有白色短柔毛,后对萼片宽卵形,龙骨突较狭,伸出顶端,两侧片较宽,龙骨突及边缘疏生白色短柔毛。花冠淡黄色,无毛,冠筒等长或略长于萼片;花两型,能育花的花冠裂片卵状披针形,长1.5-2.5毫米,直立,雄蕊着生于冠筒内面顶端,被直立的花冠裂片所覆盖,花药狭卵形,长仅0.25-0.3毫米,淡黄色,干后黄色,具狭三角形小尖头,花柱内藏或略外伸,以闭花受粉为主;风媒花通常不育,花冠裂片与能育花同形,但开展并于花后反折,雄蕊与花柱明显外伸,花药宽椭圆形,长1-1.1毫米,淡黄色,干后黄褐色,具三角形小尖头。胚珠2。蒴果卵球形,长2-3毫米,于基部上方周裂。种子2,卵形或长卵形,长(1-)1.4-1.8毫米,腹面凹陷呈船形,黄褐色至红褐色,有光泽;子叶背腹向排列。花期4-5月,果期5-6月。
分布(Distribution):原产北美洲,在中美洲、欧洲、日本及中国归化,生于低海拔草地、路边、湖畔。
用途(Use):
引自中国植物志英文版:FOC Vol. 19 Page 496, 499   
Plantago virginica Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 1: 113. 1753.
北美车前 bei mei che qian| Plantaginaceae  | Plantago
Herbs, annual or winter annuals. Taproot tenuous. Leaves basal; petiole 0.5-5 cm, winged or not winged; leaf blade oblanceolate, spatulate, or obovate-lanceolate, (2-)3-18 × 0.5-4 cm, sparsely white pubescent, veins (3 or)5, base narrowly cuneate to decurrent onto petiole, margin repand, irregularly dentate, or subentire, apex acute to obtuse. Spikes narrowly cylindric, (1-)3-18 cm, base usually interrupted; peduncle 4-20 cm, hollow, densely white pubescent. Sepals as long as or slightly shorter than bract, pubescent; lower sepals obovate, keel not extending to apex; upper sepals broadly ovate, keel narrower and projected at apex. Corolla yellowish, glabrous; lobes ovate-lanceolate, 1.5-2.5 mm, erect to reflexed, apex acuminate. Stamens adnate to near apex of corolla tube, included or exserted; anthers yellowish, narrowly ovoid to broadly ellipsoid, 0.3-1.1 mm. Pyxis ovoid, 2-3 mm, circumscissile near base, with 2 seeds. Seeds light brown, ovoid to narrowly ovoid, (1-)1.4-1.8 mm, with a shallow groove on ventral face; cotyledons parallel to ventral side. Fl. Apr-May, fr. May-Jun. 2n = 12, 24.
Naturalized in grasslands, roadsides, and lake banks; near sea level to 800 m. Anhui, Chongqing, Fujian, Guangxi, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, Taiwan, Zhejiang [native to North America; naturalized in Central America, Europe, and Japan].
Plantago virginica was first collected in China in Nanchang Shi, Jiangxi, in 1951. In China this species usually has cleistogamous cosexual flowers. Cleistogamous female flowers and chasmogamous male flowers are rare. Cleistogamous cosexual flowers have erect corolla lobes, included anthers and stigma, and narrowly ovoid ca. 0.3 mm anthers. Cleistogamous female flowers are similar to cosexual flowers but with vestigial anthers and an exserted stigma. Chasmogamous male flowers have patent to reflexed corolla lobes, exserted stamens, broadly ellipsoid 1-1.1 mm anthers, and often a vestigial ovary.
In North America Plantago virginica is typically cleistogamous and cosexual; however, flowers, inflorescences, or entire plants are frequently chasmogamous and functionally male or cleistogamous with exserted stigmas and functionally female.
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