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百脉根Lotus corniculatus

时间:2018-08-14 08:49来源:未知 作者:徐晔春 点击:
中文名( Chinese Name ):百脉根 学名( Scientific Name ): Lotus corniculatus L. 英文名( English Common Name ): birds-foot trefoil 别名( Chinese Common Name ): 牛角花、五叶草 异名( Synonym ): Lotus caucasicus Kuprian. Lotus macb
中文名(Chinese Name):百脉根
学名(Scientific Name):Lotus corniculatus L.
英文名(English Common Name):bird's-foot trefoil
别名(Chinese Common Name):牛角花、五叶草
异名(Synonym):Lotus caucasicus Kuprian.  Lotus macbridei A. Nelson  Lotus arvensis Pers.  Lotus ambiguus Spreng.  Lotus zhegulensis Klokov  Lotus tauricus Juz.  Lotus ruprechtii Miniaev  Lotus olgae Klokov  Lotus komarovii Miniaev  Lotus ciliatus sensu Schur  Lotus carpetanus Lacaita  Lotus balticus Miniaev  Lotus corniculatus var. crassifolia Fr.  Lotus corniculatus var. kochii Chrtkova  Lotus corniculatus var. maritimus Rupr.
科属(Family & Genus):蝶形花科,Fabaceae百脉根属
形态特征(Description):多年生草本,高15-50厘米,全株散生稀疏白色柔毛或秃净。具主根。茎丛生,平卧或上升,实心,近四棱形。羽状复叶小叶5枚;叶轴长4-8毫米,疏被柔毛,顶端3小叶,基部2小叶呈托叶状,纸质,斜卵形至倒披针状卵形,长5-15毫米,宽4-8毫米,中脉不清晰;小叶柄甚短,长约1毫米,密被黄色长柔毛。伞形花序;总花梗长3-10厘米;花3-7朵集生于总花梗顶端,长 (7) 9-15毫米;花梗短,基部有苞片3枚;苞片叶状,与萼等长,宿存:萼钟形,长5-7毫米,宽2-3毫米,无毛或稀被柔毛,萼齿近等长,狭三角形,渐尖,与萼筒等长;花冠黄色或金黄色,干后常变蓝色,旗瓣扁圆形,瓣片和瓣柄几等长,长10-15毫米,宽6-8毫米,翼瓣和龙骨瓣等长,均略短于旗瓣,龙骨瓣呈直角三角形弯曲,喙部狭尖;雄蕊两体,花丝分离部略短于雄蕊筒;花柱直,等长于子房成直角上指,柱头点状,子房线形,无毛,胚珠35-40粒。荚果直,线状圆柱形,长20-25毫米,径2-4毫米,褐色,二瓣裂,扭曲;有多数种子,种子细小,卵圆形,长约1毫米,灰褐色。花期5-9月,果期7-10月。
分布(Distribution):产西北、西南和长江中上游各省区。生于湿润而呈弱碱性的山坡、草地、田野或河滩地。亚洲、欧洲、北美洲和大洋洲均有分布。
用途(Use):本种是良好的微草或饲料,茎叶柔软多汁,碳水化合物含量丰富,质量超过苜宿和车轴草。生长期长,能抗寒耐涝,在暖温带地区的豆科牧草中花期较早,到秋季仍能生长,茎叶丰盛,年割草可达四次。由于花中含有苦味甙和氢氰酸,故盛花期时牲畜不愿啃食,但干草或经青贮处理后,毒性即可消失。具根瘤菌,有改良土壤的功能。又是优良的蜜源植物之一。
引自植物志英文版:FOC Vol. 10 Page 316, 317, 318,319    
Lotus corniculatus Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 2: 775. 1753.
百脉根 bai mai gen | Fabaceae  | Lotus
Herbs, perennial, 15-80 cm, with a taproot, scattered sparsely white puberulent or glabrescent. Stem cylindric to angular, solid, decumbent or ascending. Leaflets 5, apical 3 obo­vate to oblanceolate-obovate (lateral 2 oblique), 5-20 × 4-10 mm, papery, basal 2 stipulelike, midrib obscure. Umbels rarely more than 7-flowered; peduncle 3-10 cm; sterile bract with 1-3 leaflets, ± equal to calyx, 5-7 mm. Flowers (9-)10-18 mm. Ca­lyx teeth almost equal in length, narrowly triangular, ± equaling, longer than, or shorter than tube. Corolla yellow or partly or wholly orange-red, often bluish black when dry. Ovary gla­brous; ovules 35-40; style 4-6 mm. Legume brown, linear-cy­lindric, 20-25 × 2-4 mm. Seeds light to dark brown, 1-colored or spotted with violet-black spots or dots, small, ovoid, 1-1.7 mm. Fl. (Jan-)Feb-Oct, fr. (Mar-)Apr-Oct.
Pinus plantations, thickets, scrub, damp meadows, alpine mead­ows, dry hill pastures, grassy places, rocky slopes, ravines, river val­leys, banks, roadsides, abandoned fields, cultivated ground; 400-3400 m. Guizhou, Hubei, Hunan, Sichuan, Taiwan, Tianjin, Xizang, Yunnan [Afghanistan, Bhutan, India, Japan, Kashmir, Kazakhstan, Korea, Mon­golia, Myanmar, Nepal, Pakistan, Russia, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan; E and N Africa, SW Asia, Europe; introduced in Australia (including Tas­mania), North, Central, and South America, and Pacific islands (New Zealand)].




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