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甘草Glycyrrhiza uralensis

时间:2018-08-14 08:42来源:未知 作者:徐晔春 点击:
中文名( Chinese Name ):甘草 学名( Scientific Name ): Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch. ex DC. 英文名( English Common Name ): 别名( Chinese Common Name ): 甜草 异名( Synonym ): Glycyrrhiza eglandulosa X. Y. Li Glycyrrhiza viscida
中文名(Chinese Name):甘草
学名(Scientific Name):Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch. ex DC.
英文名(English Common Name):
别名(Chinese Common Name):甜草
异名(Synonym):Glycyrrhiza eglandulosa X. Y. Li  Glycyrrhiza viscida Turcz. ex Besser  Glycyrrhiza shiheziensis X. Y. Li  Glycyrrhiza asperrima var. desertorum Regel  Glycyrrhiza asperrima var. uralensis Regel  Glycyrrhiza glandulifera var. grandiflora Ledeb.  Glycyrrhiza korshinskyi Grig.  Glycyrrhiza gobica Grankina  Glycyrrhiza soongorica Grankina  Glycyrrhiza grandiflora Tausch  Glycyrrhiza alaschanica Grankina
科属(Family & Genus):蝶形花科甘草属
形态特征(Description):多年生草本;根与根状茎粗状,直径1-3厘米,外皮褐色,里面淡黄色,具甜味。茎直立,多分枝,高30-120厘米,密被鳞片状腺点、刺毛状腺体及白色或褐色的绒毛,叶长5-20厘米;托叶三角状披针形,长约5毫米,宽约2毫米,两面密被白色短柔毛;叶柄密被褐色腺点和短柔毛;小叶5-17枚,卵形、长卵形或近圆形,长1.5-5厘米,宽0.8-3厘米,上面暗绿色,下面绿色,两面均密被黄褐色腺点及短柔毛,顶端钝,具短尖,基部圆,边缘全缘或微呈波状,多少反卷。总状花序腋生,具多数花,总花梗短于叶,密生褐色的鳞片状腺点和短柔毛;苞片长圆状披针形,长3-4毫米,褐色,膜质,外面被黄色腺点和短柔毛;花萼钟状,长7-14毫米,密被黄色腺点及短柔毛,基部偏斜并膨大呈囊状,萼齿5,与萼筒近等长,上部2齿大部分连合;花冠紫色、白色或黄色,长10-24毫米,旗瓣长圆形,顶端微凹,基部具短瓣柄,翼瓣短于旗瓣,龙骨瓣短于翼瓣;子房密被刺毛状腺体。荚果弯曲呈镰刀状或呈环状,密集成球,密生瘤状突起和刺毛状腺体。种子3-11,暗绿色,圆形或肾形,长约3毫米。花期6-8月,果期7-10月。
分布(Distribution):产东北、华北、西北各省区及山东。常生于干旱沙地、河岸砂质地、山坡草地及盐渍化土壤中。蒙古及俄罗斯也有。
用途(Use):根和根状茎供药用。
引自植物志英文版:FOC Vol. 10 Page 509
Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fischer ex Candolle, Prodr. 2: 2 48. 1825.
甘草 gan cao | Fabaceae  | Glycyrrhiza
Glycyrrhiza asperrima Linnaeus f. var. desertorum Regel; G. asperrima var. uralensis (Fischer ex Candolle) Regel; G. shiheziensis X. Y. Li.
Herbs, perennial. Roots and rhizomes strong. Stem 30-120 cm tall, densely scaly glandular punctate and white or brown tomentose. Leaves 5-20 cm, 5-17-foliolate; stipules triangular-lanceolate, ca. 5 × 2 mm, densely white pubescent; petiole densely brown glandular punctate and pubescent; leaflets ovate, narrowly ovate, or orbicular, 1.5-5 × 0.8-3 cm, densely glan­dular punctate and pubescent, base rounded, margin entire or repand, apex obtuse and mucronate. Racemes much flowered; rachis shorter than leaf, densely brown glandular punctate and pubescent; bracts brown, oblong-lanceolate, 3-4 mm, membra­nous, yellow glandular and pubescent. Calyx campanulate, 7-14 mm, densely yellow glandular punctate and pubescent, in­flated to saccate at base, 5-toothed; upper 2 teeth mostly joined. Corolla purple, white, or yellow, 1-2.4 cm; standard oblong, base shortly clawed, apex retuse; wings shorter than standard; keel shorter than wings. Ovary densely glandular. Legume fal­cate to curved into a ring, densely tuberculate and glandular hairy. Seeds 3-11, dark green, orbicular or reniform, ca. 3 mm. Fl. Jun-Aug, fr. Jul-Oct. 2n = 16*.
Sandy lands, dry riverbanks, grasslands on hills; 400-2700 m. Gansu, Hebei, Heilongjiang, Liaoning, Nei Mongol, Ningxia, Qinghai, Shaanxi, Shandong, Shanxi, Xinjiang [Afghanistan, Kazakhstan, Kyr­gyzstan, Mongolia, Pakistan, Russia, Tajikistan].







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