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香蜂花Melissa officinalis

时间:2013-12-04 10:10来源:未知 作者:徐晔春 点击:
中文名 ( Chinese Name ): 蜜蜂花 学名 ( Scientific Name ): Melissa officinalis L. 英文名 ( English Common Name ): common balm 别名( Chinese Common Name ): 香蜂草 异名( Synonym ): Faucibarba officinalis (L.) Dulac Mutelia offi
中文名Chinese Name):香蜂花
学名Scientific Name):Melissa officinalis L.
英文名English Common Name):common balm
别名(Chinese Common Name):香蜂草
异名(Synonym):Faucibarba officinalis (L.) Dulac  Mutelia officinalis (L.) Gren. ex Mutel  Thymus melissa E.H.L.Krause
科属(Family & Genus):唇形科(Labiatae)蜜蜂花属
形态特征(Description):多年生草本。茎直立或近直立,多分枝,分枝大多数在茎中部或以下作塔形开展,四棱形,具四浅槽,被柔毛,下部逐渐变无毛。叶具柄,柄纤细,长0.5-2(4)厘米,被长柔毛,叶片卵圆形,在茎上的一般长达5(6.5)厘米,宽3-4(5)厘米,枝上的较小,长1-3厘米,宽0.8-2厘米,先端急尖或钝,基部圆形至近心形,稀为钝或急尖,边缘具锯齿状圆齿或钝锯齿,近膜质或草质,上面被长柔毛,下面仅沿脉被长柔毛,侧脉4对,与中脉在上面近平坦下面隆起,网脉在上面明显。轮伞花序腋生,具短梗,2-14花;苞片叶状,比叶小很多,被长柔毛及具缘毛;花梗长约4毫米,被长柔毛。花萼钟形,长约8毫米,外面被有具节长柔毛,内面在中部以上被长柔毛,二唇形,上唇宽,具3极短的齿或近浅波状,齿尖具短尖,下唇稍比上唇长,2齿裂,齿长三角形,先端长刺尖。花冠乳白色,长12-13毫米,被柔毛,冠檐二唇形,上唇直伸,先端微缺,下唇3裂,中裂片最大,斜开展,先端圆形。雄蕊4,内藏或近伸出。花柱先端相等2浅裂。花盘浅4裂,裂片与子房裂片互生。小坚果卵圆形。花期6-8月。
分布(Distribution):原产俄罗斯,伊朗至地中海及大西洋沿岸。
用途(Use):植株富含芳香油,油主要成分为柠檬醛,为一很好的芳香油植物。
引自植物志英文版:FOC Vol. 17 Page 226
Melissa officinalis Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 2: 592. 1753.
香蜂花 xiang feng hua| Lamiaceae  | Melissa
Stems ± erect, pyramidally much branched, pubescent, base glabrescent. Petiole slender, 0.5-2(-4) cm; leaf blade ovate, 1-5(-6.5) × 0.8-4(-5) cm, ± membranous or herbaceous, adaxially villous, abaxially villous along veins, base rounded to subcordate rarely obtuse or acute, margin serrate-crenate to obtusely serrate, apex acute to obtuse. Verticillasters 2-14-flowered, short pedunculate; bracts leaflike, much smaller than leaves, villous, ciliate. Pedicel ca. 4 mm. Calyx campanulate, ca. 8 mm, villous outside, villous inside apically; upper lip short 3-denticulate or ± undulate, teeth with short erect apices; lower lip slightly longer than upper, teeth narrowly triangular, apex spinescent. Corolla creamy white, 1.2-1.3 cm, villous outside; upper lip emarginate; middle lobe of lower lip obliquely spreading, rounded. Fl. Jun-Aug.
Cultivated in China [Kyrgyzstan, Russia, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan; Africa, SW Asia, Europe]
Used for flavoring salads, soups, and liqueurs. Oil employed in perfumery; commonly known as balm tea; a home remedy sometimes used for headaches and toothaches.



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