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活血丹Glechoma longituba

时间:2013-09-24 13:55来源:未知 作者:徐晔春 点击:
中文名( Chinese Name ):活血丹 学名( Scientific Name ): Glechoma longituba (Nakai) Kupr. 英文名( English Common Name ): 别名( Chinese Common Name ): 金钱薄荷 异名 ( Synonym ): Nepeta glechoma var. sinensis Miq. Glechoma heder
中文名(Chinese Name):活血丹
学名(Scientific Name):Glechoma longituba (Nakai) Kupr.
英文名(English Common Name):
别名(Chinese Common Name):金钱薄荷
异名Synonym):Nepeta glechoma var. sinensis Miq.  Glechoma hederacea var. longituba Nakai  Glechoma brevituba Kuprian.  Glechoma grandis var. longituba (Nakai) Kitag.
科属Family & Genus):唇形科(Labiatae)活血丹属
形态特征(Description):多年生草本,具匍匐茎,上升,逐节生根。茎高10-20(30)厘米,四棱形,基部通常呈淡紫红色,几无毛,幼嫩部分被疏长柔毛。叶草质,下部者较小,叶片心形或近肾形,叶柄长为叶片的1-2倍;上部者较大,叶片心形,长1.8-2.6厘米,宽2-3厘米,先端急尖或钝三角形,基部心形,边缘具圆齿或粗锯齿状圆齿,上面被疏粗伏毛或微柔毛,叶脉不明显,下面常带紫色,被疏柔毛或长硬毛,常仅限于脉上,脉隆起,叶柄长为叶片的1.5倍,被长柔毛。轮伞花序通常2花,稀具4-6花;苞片及小苞片线形,长达4毫米,被缘毛。花萼管状,长9-11毫米,外面被长柔毛,尤沿肋上为多,内面多少被微柔毛,齿5,上唇3齿,较长,下唇2齿,略短,齿卵状三角形,长为萼长1/2,先端芒状,边缘具缘毛。花冠淡蓝、蓝至紫色,下唇具深色斑点,冠筒直立,上部渐膨大成钟形,有长筒与短筒两型,长筒者长1.7-2.2厘米,短筒者通常藏于花萼内,长1-1.4厘米,外面多少被长柔毛及微柔毛,内面仅下唇喉部被疏柔毛或几无毛,冠檐二唇形。上唇直立,2裂,裂片近肾形,下唇伸长,斜展,3裂,中裂片最大,肾形,较上唇片大1-2倍,先端凹入,两侧裂片长圆形,宽为中裂片之半。雄蕊4,内藏,无毛,后对着生于上唇下,较长,前对着生于两侧裂片下方花冠筒中部,较短;花药2室,略叉开。子房4裂,无毛。花盘杯状,微斜,前方呈指状膨大。花柱细长,无毛,略伸出,先端近相等2裂。成熟小坚果深褐色,长圆状卵形,长约1.5毫米,宽约1毫米,顶端圆,基部略成三棱形,无毛,果脐不明显。花期4-5月,果期5-6月。
分布(Distribution):除青海、甘肃、新疆及西藏外,全国各地均产;生于海拔50-2000米林缘、疏林下、草地中、溪边等阴湿处。俄罗斯、朝鲜也有。
用途(Use):民间广泛用全草或茎叶入药。
引自植物志英文版:FOC Vol. 17 Page 118    
Glechoma longituba (Nakai) Kuprianova, Bot. Zhurn. (Moscow & Leningrad). 33: 236. 1948.
活血丹 huo xue dan | Lamiaceae  | Glechoma
Glechoma hederacea Linnaeus var. longituba Nakai, Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 35: 173. 1921; G. brevituba Kuprianova; Nepeta glechoma Bentham var. hirsuta Debeaux; N. glechoma var. sinensis Miquel.
Stems 10-20(-30) cm, ascending, base purplish red, young parts sparsely villous. Petiole 1-2 × as long as blade; leaf blade of basal leaves smaller, cordate to subreniform, upper blade cordate, 1.8-2.6 × 2-3 cm, adaxially sparsely strigose or puberulent, abaxially purplish, veins pilose or hirsute, margin coarsely crenate or serrate-crenate, apex acute to obtuse. Verticillasters 2(-6)-flowered; bracts and bracteoles linear, to 4 mm, ciliate. Calyx tubular, 0.9-1.1 cm, villous especially on veins; teeth ovate-triangular, 3-5 mm, apex awned, ciliate, adaxial ones longer. Corolla blue to purple with dark spots on lower lip, tubular-campanulate, long-tubed corolla 1.7-2.2 cm, short-tubed corolla 1-1.4 cm, ± villous, puberulent; upper lip straight, 2-lobed, lobes subreniform; lower lip elongated, obliquely spreading, middle lobe reniform, 2-3 × as long as upper lip, apex emarginate; lateral lobes oblong, ca. 1/2 as long as middle lobe. Nutlets ca. 1.5 × 1 mm, basally ± triquetrous, apex rounded. Fl. Apr-May, fr. May-Jun.
Grasslands, forest margins, forests, streamsides; 100-2000 m. All provinces except Gansu, Qinghai, Xinjiang, Xizang [Korea, Russia]
Used medicinally.




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