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菊芋Helianthus tuberosus

时间:2013-07-23 13:10来源:未知 作者:徐晔春 点击:
中文名( Chinese Name ):菊芋 学名( Scientific Name ): Helianthus tuberosus L. 英文名( English Common Name ): Jerusalem artichoke 别名( Chinese Common Name ): 鬼子姜、洋姜 异名( Synonym ): Helianthus serotinus Tausch Helianthu








中文名(Chinese Name):菊芋
学名(Scientific Name):Helianthus tuberosus L.
英文名(English Common Name):Jerusalem artichoke
别名(Chinese Common Name):鬼子姜、洋姜
异名(Synonym):Helianthus serotinus Tausch  Helianthus tuberosus var. subcanescens A.Gray
科属(Family & Genus):菊科(Compositae)向日葵属
形态特征(Description):多年生草本,高1-3米,有块状的地下茎及纤维状根。茎直立,有分枝,被白色短糙毛或刚毛。叶通常对生,有叶柄,但上部叶互生;下部叶卵圆形或卵状椭圆形,有长柄,长10-16厘米,宽3-6厘米,基部宽楔形或圆形,有时微心形,顶端渐细尖,边缘有粗锯齿,有离基三出脉,上面被白色短粗毛、下面被柔毛,叶脉上有短硬毛,上部叶长椭圆形至阔披针形,基部渐狭,下延成短翅状,顶端渐尖,短尾状。头状花序较大,少数或多数,单生于枝端,有1-2个线状披针形的苞叶,直立,径2-5厘米,总苞片多层,披针形,长14-17毫米、宽2-3毫米,顶端长渐尖,背面被短伏毛,边缘被开展的缘毛;托片长圆形,长8毫米,背面有肋、上端不等三浅裂。舌状花通常12-20个,舌片黄色,开展,长椭圆形,长1.7-3厘米;管状花花冠黄色,长6毫米。瘦果小,楔形,上端有2-4个有毛的锥状扁芒。花期8-9月。
分布(Distribution):原产北美,我国各地均有栽培。
用途(Use):可供食用。块茎含有丰富的淀粉,是优良的多汁饲料。
引自中国植物志英文版FOC Vol. 20-21 Page 874, 875
Helianthus tuberosus Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 2: 905. 1753.
菊芋 ju yu| Asteraceae  | Helianthus
Helianthus tomentosus Michaux; H. tuberosus var. subcanescens A. Gray.
Herbs, perennial, 50-200 cm, rhizomatous, producing tubers late in growing season. Stems erect, scabrid-hispid to hirsute, sometimes glaucous. Leaves mostly cauline, opposite or alternate proximally, usually alternate distally; petiole 2-8 cm, often ± winged; blade lanceolate to ovate, 10-23 × 7-15 cm, 3-veined from near base, abaxially puberulent or hirsutulous to tomentulose and gland-dotted or ± scabrid, base broadly to narrowly cuneate, margin entire or serrate. Capitula 3-15; peduncles 1-15 cm; involucres hemispheric, 10-25 × 8-12 mm; phyllaries often dark green, drying nearly black, 22-35, subequal, lanceolate, 8.5-15 × 2-4 mm, abaxially hispidulous or puberulent, gland-dotted, base appressed, margin ciliate, apex ± spreading, sometimes reflexed in fruit, acuminate; paleae 8-9 mm, 3-toothed, apices hairy. Ray florets 10-20; lamina 25-40 mm. Disk florets 60+; corollas 6-7 mm, lobes yellow; anthers dark brown or black, appendages dark or yellowish. Achenes 5-7 mm, glabrous or apically hairy; pappus of 2 aristate scales 1.9-3 mm plus 0-1 deltate scales 0.5-0.8 mm. Fl. Aug-Sep. 2n = 102.
Roadsides, fields, wastelands. Widely cultivated and sometimes naturalized in China [native to North America; widely cultivated in temperate areas].
Helianthus tuberosus is a vegetable crop and widely naturalized. (责任编辑:徐晔春)
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