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向日葵Helianthus annuus

时间:2013-07-23 13:09来源:未知 作者:徐晔春 点击:
中文名( Chinese Name ):向日葵 学名( Scientific Name ): Helianthus annuus L. 英文名( English Common Name ): common sunflower 别名( Chinese Common Name ): 丈菊、葵花 异名( Synonym ): Helianthus aridus Rydb. Helianthus jaegeri








中文名(Chinese Name):向日葵
学名(Scientific Name):Helianthus annuus L.
英文名(English Common Name):common sunflower
别名(Chinese Common Name):丈菊、葵花
异名(Synonym):Helianthus aridus Rydb.  Helianthus jaegeri Heiser  Helianthus erythrocarpus   Helianthus ovatus Lehm.  Helianthus platycephalus Cass.  Helianthus indicus L.  Helianthus annuus subsp. jaegeri (Heiser) Heiser  Helianthus annuus subsp. lenticularis (Douglas ex Lindl.) Cockerell  Helianthus annuus subsp. texanus Heiser  Helianthus annuus var. lenticularis (Douglas ex Lindl.) Steyerm.  Helianthus annuus var. macrocarpus (DC.) Cockerell  Helianthus annuus var. texanus (Heiser) Shinners
科属(Family & Genus):菊科(Compositae)向日葵属
形态特征(Description):一年生高大草本。茎直立,高1-3米,粗壮,被白色粗硬毛,不分枝或有时上部分枝。叶互生,心状卵圆形或卵圆形,顶端急尖或渐尖,有三基出脉,边缘有粗锯齿,两面被短糙毛,有长柄。头状花序极大,径约10-30厘米,单生于茎端或枝端,常下倾。总苞片多层,叶质,覆瓦状排列,卵形至卵状披针形,顶端尾状渐尖,被长硬毛或纤毛。花托平或稍凸、有半膜质托片。舌状花多数,黄色、舌片开展,长圆状卵形或长圆形,不结实。管状花极多数,棕色或紫色,有披针形裂片,结果实。瘦果倒卵形或卵状长圆形,稍扁压,长10-15毫米,有细肋,常被白色短柔毛,上端有2个膜片状早落的冠毛。花期7-9月,果期8-9月。
分布(Distribution):原产北美,现世界各地均有栽培。
用途(Use):
引自中国植物志英文版FOC Vol. 20-21 Page 874, 875
Helianthus annuus Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 2: 904. 1753.
向日葵 xiang ri kui | Asteraceae  | Helianthus
Helianthus annuus subsp. jaegeri (Heiser) Heiser; H. annuus subsp. lenticularis (Douglas ex Lindley) Cockerell; H. annuus var. lenticularis (Douglas ex Lindley) Steyermark; H. annuus var. macrocarpus (Candolle) Cockerell; H. annuus subsp. texanus Heiser; H. aridus Rydberg; H. jaegeri Heiser; H. lenticularis Douglas ex Lindley; H. macrocarpus Candolle.
Annuals, 100-300 cm. Stems erect, usually hispid. Leaves mostly cauline, mostly alternate; petiole 2-20 cm; blade ovate-lanceolate to ovate, 10-40 × 5-40 cm, abaxially usually ± hispid, sometimes gland-dotted, base cuneate to subcordate or cordate, margin serrate. Capitula 1-9; peduncles 2-20 cm; involucres hemispheric or broader, 15-40(-200) mm in diam.; phyllaries 20-30(-100), ovate to ovate-lanceolate, 13-25 × (3-)5-8 mm, abaxially usually hirsute to hispid, rarely glabrate or glabrous, usually gland-dotted, margin usually ciliate, apex abruptly narrowed, long acuminate; paleae 9-11 mm, 3-toothed, middle teeth long acuminate, glabrous or hispid. Ray florets (13-)17-30(-100+); lamina 25-50 mm. Disk florets 150-1000; corollas 5-8 mm, throats bulbous at bases, lobes usually reddish, sometimes yellow; anthers brownish to black, appendages yellow or dark. Achenes (3-)4-5(-15) mm, glabrate; pappus of 2 lanceolate scales 2-3.5 mm plus 0-4 obtuse scales 0.5-1 mm. Fl. Jul-Sep, fr. Aug-Oct. 2n = 34.
Open areas. Widely cultivated in China [native to North America].
Helianthus annuus is a major agronomic crop, introduced nearly worldwide.
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