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牛蒡Arctium lappa

时间:2013-07-23 07:22来源:未知 作者:徐晔春 点击:
中文名( Chinese Name ):牛蒡 学名( Scientific Name ): Arctium lappa L. 英文名( English Common Name ): greater burdock 别名( Chinese Common Name ): 大力子 异名( Synonym ): Arctium lappa subsp. majus Arnes Arctium leiospermum J






中文名(Chinese Name):牛蒡
学名(Scientific Name):Arctium lappa L.
英文名(English Common Name): greater burdock
别名(Chinese Common Name):大力子
异名(Synonym):Arctium lappa subsp. majus Arènes  Arctium leiospermum Juz. et al.  Arctium majus (Gaertn.) Bernh.  Lappa vulgaris Hill  Lappa major Gaertn.  Arctium grandiflorum Desf.  Bardana lappa Hill  Lappa glabra Lam.  Bardana arctium Hill  Arctium bardana Willd.  Arcion tomentosum Bubani  Arctium ruderale Salisb.  Arcion majus Bubani  Arctium chaorum Klokov  Lappa officinalis All.  Arctium adhaerens Gilib.  Arctium minus subsp. nemorosum (Lej.) Syme  Arctium nemorosum f. mathei Soó  Arctium pubens var. microcephalum Math  Lappa intermedia var. newbouldii F.N.Williams  Lappa lappa (L.) H.Karst.  Lappa maassii M.Schultze  Lappa macrosperma
科属Family & Genus):菊科(Compositae)牛蒡属
形态特征Description):二年生草本,具粗大的肉质直根,长达15厘米,径可达2厘米,有分枝支根。茎直立,高达2米,粗壮,基部直径达2厘米,通常带紫红或淡紫红色,有多数高起的条棱,分枝斜升,多数,全部茎枝被稀疏的乳突状短毛及长蛛丝毛并混杂以棕黄色的小腺点。基生叶宽卵形,长达30厘米,宽达21厘米,边缘稀疏的浅波状凹齿或齿尖,基部心形,有长达32厘米的叶柄,两面异色,上面绿色,有稀疏的短糙毛及黄色小腺点,下面灰白色或淡绿色,被薄绒毛或绒毛稀疏,有黄色小腺点,叶柄灰白色,被稠密的蛛丝状绒毛及黄色小腺点,但中下部常脱毛。茎生叶与基生叶同形或近同形,具等样的及等量的毛被,接花序下部的叶小,基部平截或浅心形。头状花序多数或少数在茎枝顶端排成疏松的伞房花序或圆锥状伞房花序,花序梗粗壮。总苞卵形或卵球形,直径1.5-2厘米。总苞片多层,多数,外层三角状或披针状钻形,宽约1毫米,中内层披针状或线状钻形,宽1.5-3毫米;全部苞近等长,长约1.5厘米,顶端有软骨质钩刺。小花紫红色,花冠长1.4厘米,细管部长8毫米,簷部长6毫米,外面无腺点,花冠裂片长约2毫米。瘦果倒长卵形或偏斜倒长卵形,长5-7毫米,宽2-3毫米,两侧压扁,浅褐色,有多数细脉纹,有深褐色的色斑或无色斑。冠毛多层,浅褐色;冠毛刚毛糙毛状,不等长,长达3.8毫米,基部不连合成环,分散脱落。花果期6-9月。
分布(Distribution):全国各地普遍分布,生于海拔750-3500米的山坡、山谷、林缘、林中、灌丛中、路边等处。广布欧亚大陆。
用途(Use):瘦果和根入药。
引自中国植物志英文版FOC Vol. 20-21 Page 153
Arctium lappa Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 2: 816. 1753.
牛蒡 niu bang| Asteraceae  | Arctium
Arctium leiospermum Juzepczuk & Ye. V. Sergievskaja; A. majus Bernhardi, nom. illeg. superfl.; Lappa major Gaertner, nom. illeg. superfl.; L. vulgaris Hill.
Herbs to 2 m tall, biennial. Stem purplish, erect, stout, apically branched, sparsely cobwebby; branches ascending. Leaves abaxially grayish white or pale green and thinly felted, adaxially green, sparsely strigose, and yellow gland-dotted. Basal leaves with petiole ca. 32 cm; leaf blade broadly heart-shaped, ca. 30 × 21 cm, margin entire and repand to mucronulate denticulate. Cauline leaves similar to basal leaves or ovate; uppermost cauline leaves ovate to shallowly cordate, smaller. Capitula few to many, ± corymbose. Involucre ovoid, 1.5-2 cm in diam., glabrous except for minute glandular hairs. Phyllaries all with a hooked apex; outer phyllaries triangular to lanceolate-subulate, ca. 15 × 1 mm; middle and inner phyllaries lanceolate to linear-subulate, ca. 15 × 1.5-3 mm. Corolla purplish red, ca. 1.4 cm, tube ca. 8 mm. Achene pale brown variegated with dark brown or concolorous, narrowly sometimes obliquely obovoid, 5-7 mm, multistriate. Pappus bristles to 3.5 mm. Fl. and fr. Jun-Sep. 2n = 18, 34, 36.
Near villages, roadsides, near rivers, wet and waste places, forest margins, thickets, valleys, slopes; 700-3500 m. Throughout China except for Hainan, Taiwan, and Xizang [Afghanistan, Bhutan, India, Japan, Nepal, Pakistan; SW Asia, Europe].
Arctium lappa is cultivated almost throughout China. The achenes and roots are used medicinally.
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