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海芋Alocasia odora

时间:2013-07-16 11:09来源:未知 作者:徐晔春 点击:
中文名( Chinese Name ):海芋 学名( Scientific Name ): Alocasia odora (Roxb.) K. Koch 英文名( English Common Name ): Asian taro 别名( Chinese Common Name ): 滴水观音、老虎芋 异名( Synonym ): Caladium odorum Lindl.;Arum odorum









中文名(
Chinese Name):海芋
学名(Scientific Name):Alocasia odora (Roxb.) K. Koch
英文名(English Common Name):Asian taro
别名(Chinese Common Name):滴水观音、老虎芋
异名(Synonym):Caladium odorum Lindl.;Arum odorum Roxb.;Arum odoratum Heynh.;Caladium odoratissimum K.Koch;Colocasia odora (Lindl.) Brongn.;Alocasia commutata Schott;Alocasia tonkinensis Engl. 
科属(Family & Genus):天南星科(Araceae)海芋属
形态特征(Description):大型常绿草本植物,具匍匐根茎,有直立的地上茎,随植株的年龄和人类活动干扰的程度不同,茎高有不到10厘米的,也有高达3-5米的,粗10-30厘米,基部长出不定芽条。叶多数,叶柄绿色或污紫色,螺状排列,粗厚,长可达1.5米,基部连鞘宽5-10厘米,展开;叶片亚革质,草绿色,箭状卵形,边缘波状,长50-90厘米,宽40-90厘米,有的长宽都在一米以上,后裂片联合1/5-1/10,幼株叶片联合较多;前裂片三角状卵形,先端锐尖,长胜于宽,I级侧脉9-12对,下部的粗如手指,向上渐狭;后裂片多少圆形,弯缺锐尖,有时几达叶柄,后基脉互交成直角或不及90度的锐角。叶柄和中肋变黑色、褐色或白色。花序柄2-3枚丛生,圆柱形,长12-60厘米,通常绿色,有时污紫色。佛焰苞管部绿色,长3-5厘米,粗3-4厘米,卵形或短椭圆形;檐部蕾时绿色,花时黄绿色、绿白色,凋萎时变黄色、白色,舟状,长圆形,略下弯,先端喙状,长10-30厘米,周围4-8厘米。肉穗花序芳香,雌花序白色,长2-4厘米,不育雄花序绿白色,长(2.5-)5-6厘米,能育雄花序淡黄色,长3-7厘米;附属器淡绿色至乳黄色,圆锥状,长3-5.5厘米,粗1-2厘米,圆锥状,嵌以不规则的槽纹。浆果红色,卵状,长8-10毫米,粗5-8毫米,种子1-2。花期四季,但在密阴的林下常不开花。
分布(Distribution):产江西、福建、台湾、湖南、广东、广西、四川、贵州及云南等地,生于海拔1700米以下的林缘或河谷芭蕉林下。东南亚也有。
用途(Use):根茎供药用,对腹痛、霍乱、疝气等有良效。根茎富含淀粉,可作工业上代用品,但不能食用。
引自中国植物志英文版FOC Vol. 23 Page 76, 77
Alocasia odora (Roxburgh) K. Koch, Index Seminum Hort. Berol. 1854(App.): 5. 1854.
海芋 hai yu | Araceae  | Alocasia
Arum odorum Roxburgh, Fl. Ind., ed. 1832, 3: 499. 1832; Alocasia commutata Schott; A. tonkinensis Engler; Arum odoratum Heynhold; Caladium odoratissimum K. Koch; C. odoratum Ker Gawler (1822), not Loddiges (1820); Colocasia odora (Roxburgh) Brongniart.
Pachycaul herbs, massive, to 2.5 m, evergreen, with slightly milky latex. Stem erect to decumbent, with short stolons terminating in tubercles arising from base. Leaves several to rather many together, clustered at tips of stems of larger plants; petiole up to 1.5 m, sheath membranous; leaf blade peltate, cordate-sagittate or cordate-ovate, up to 130 × 100 cm, basal margins undulate, apex shortly acuminate; primary lateral veins 9-12 on each side, interprimary veins forming well-defined interprimary collective veins. Inflorescences 2 or 3 together among leaf bases, subtended by membranous cataphylls; peduncle stout, ca. 35 cm, exceeding cataphylls at anthesis. Spathe 13-25 cm, constricted ca. 1/6 of way from base; proximal part green, ovoid; limb cowl-like at anthesis, later reflexed, then deliquescent, greenish white, broadly oblong-lanceolate, 10-30 × 4-8 cm, membranous. Spadix shorter than spathe, shortly stipitate; female zone 1-2 × ca. 1.5 cm; pistil pale green, ca. 3 mm in diam.; stigma sessile, weakly 3-lobed, lobes blunt, pale green; sterile zone equaling male zone, ivory, very slightly narrowed corresponding to spathe constriction; synandrodes rhombic-hexagonal, ca. 2.5 mm in diam.; male zone whitish, cylindric, 3-5 × ca. 2 cm; synandria rhombic-hexagonal, convex-topped due to cap-forming synconnective, ca. 1.5 mm in diam.; appendix white, narrowly conic, 3-5.5 × 1-2 cm, equaling ca. 1/3 length of spadix, markedly thicker than male zone at base, slowly tapering toward apex. Fruiting spathe ca. 6 cm. Fruit ripening scarlet, globose, ca. 1 cm in diam.
Primary and secondary tropical rain forests, bamboo thickets, riverbanks, swamps, also on limestone; below 1700 m. Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, Hainan, Hunan, Jiangxi, Sichuan, Taiwan, Yunnan [Bangladesh, Bhutan, Cambodia, NE India (Assam), Japan (Ryukyu Islands), Laos, Myanmar, Nepal, Thailand].
Alocasia odora differs from A. macrorrhizos in having shortly peltate leaves (vs. deeply cordate at the base with the lateral lobes partially naked in the sinus in A. macrorrhizos).
The rhizomes are used for treating stomach aches, abdominal pains, cholera, and hernias, and are used externally to treat abscesses and snake and insect bites.
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