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尖尾芋Alocasia cucullata

时间:2013-07-16 11:08来源:未知 作者:徐晔春 点击:
中文名( Chinese Name ):尖尾芋 学名( Scientific Name ): Alocasia cucullata (Lour.) G.Don 英文名( English Common Name ): chinese taro 别名( Chinese Common Name ): 大附子、野山芋 异名( Synonym ): Alocasia rugosa (Kunth) Schott




中文名(Chinese Name):尖尾芋
学名(Scientific Name):Alocasia cucullata (Lour.) G.Don
英文名(English Common Name):chinese taro
别名(Chinese Common Name):大附子、野山芋
异名(Synonym):Alocasia rugosa (Kunth) Schott;Colocasia cucullata (Lour.) Schott;Arum cucullatum Lour.;Colocasia rugosa Kunth;Caladium cucullatum (Lour.) Pers.;Panzhuyuia omeiensis Z.Y.Zhu;Caladium rugosum Desf.;Colocasia cochleata Miq. 
科属(Family & Genus):天南星科(Araceae)海芋属
形态特征(Description):直立草本。地上茎圆柱形,粗3-6厘米,黑褐色,具环形叶痕,通常由基部伸出许多短缩的芽条,发出新枝,成丛生状。叶柄绿色,长25-30(-80)厘米,由中部至基部强烈扩大成宽鞘;叶片膜质至亚革质,深绿色,背稍淡,宽卵状心形,先端骤狭具凸尖,长10-16(-40)厘米,宽7-18(-28)厘米,基部圆形;中肋和I级侧脉均较粗,侧脉5-8对,其中下部2对由中肋基部出发,下倾,然后弧曲上升。花序柄圆柱形,稍粗壮,常单生,长20-30厘米。佛焰苞近肉质,管部长圆状卵形,淡绿至深绿色,长4-8厘米,粗2.5-5厘米;檐部狭舟状,边缘内卷,先端具狭长的凸尖,长5-10厘米,宽3-5厘米,外面上部淡黄色,下部淡绿色。肉穗花序比佛焰苞短,长约10厘米,雌花序长1.5-2.5厘米,圆柱形,基部斜截形,中部粗7毫米;不育雄花序长2-3厘米,粗约3毫米;能育雄花序近纺锤形,长3.5厘米,中部粗8毫米,苍黄色,黄色;附属器淡绿色、黄绿色,狭圆锥形,长约3.5厘米,下部粗6毫米。浆果近球形,径6-8毫米,通常有种子1。花期5月。
分布(Distribution):产浙江、福建、广西、广东、四川、贵州及云南,生于海拔2000米溪谷地或田边。东南亚部分国家也有。
用途(Use):全株药用,为治毒蛇咬伤要药。能清热解毒、消肿镇痛。可治流感、高烧、肺结核、急性胃炎、胃溃疡、慢性胃病、肠伤寒,外用治毒蛇咬伤、蜂窝组织炎、疮疖、风湿等。福建用全草治秃发病。本品有毒,内服久煎6小时以上方可避免中毒。
引自中国植物志英文版FOC Vol. 23 Page 76, 78
Alocasia cucullata (Loureiro) G. Don in Sweet, Hort. Brit., ed. 3. 631. 1839.
尖尾芋 jian wei yu  | Araceae  | Alocasia
Arum cucullatum Loureiro, Fl. Cochinch. 2: 536. 1790; Alocasia rugosa (Desfontaines) Schott; Caladium cucullatum (Loureiro) Persoon; C. rugosum Desfontaines; Colocasia cochleata Miquel; C. cucullata (Loureiro) Schott; C. rugosa (Desfontaines) Kunth; Panzhuyuia omeiensis Z. Y. Zhu.
Herbs, clumping, small to medium sized, somewhat robust, to 1 m, evergreen. Stems erect, hypogeal, basally much branched. Leaves many together; petiole weakly D-shaped in cross section, 25-30(-80) cm, sheath reaching to ca. 1/2 way, margins membranous; leaf blade broadly ovate-cordate, 10-40 × 7-28 cm, base shallowly cordate, apex acute; primary veins 4 on each side, radiating from petiole, arching, interprimary veins not forming a collective vein. Inflorescences rarely produced, usually solitary, sometimes paired, among leaf bases, subtended by membranous cataphylls; peduncle 20-30 cm. Spathe green, 9-15 cm; proximal spathe 4-8 × ca. 2.5 cm; limb narrowly cymbiform, 5-10 × 3-5 cm. Spadix 8-14 cm; female zone cylindric, 1.5-2.5 cm × ca. 7 mm; sterile zone 2-3 cm × ca. 3 mm; male zone yellow, ca. 3.4 cm × 8 mm; appendix yellowish, narrowly conic, ca. 3.5 cm × 5 mm. Fruit rarely produced, a subglobose berry, 6-8 mm in diam., ripening red. Fl. May.
Watersides, by fields, ?wild or cultivated; below 2000 m. Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, Hainan, Sichuan, Taiwan, Yunnan [Bangladesh, NE India (Khasi Hills, Sikkim), Laos, Myanmar, Nepal, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Vietnam].
The plants are used externally for detoxifying viper bites and are also used for treating abscesses, rheumatism, and arthritis. It is an important good-luck plant in Buddhist temples in Laos and Thailand.
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