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草麻黄Ephedra sinica

时间:2013-07-15 15:44来源:未知 作者:徐晔春 点击:
草麻黄,Ephedra sinica,麻黄,华麻黄




中文名(Chinese Name):草麻黄
学名(Scientific Name):Ephedra sinica Stapf
英文名(English Common Name):Chinese ephedra
别名(Chinese Common Name):麻黄、华麻黄
异名(Synonym):Ephedra ma-huang Liu;Ephedra flava F.P.Sm.
科属(Family & Genus):麻黄科(Ephedraceae)麻黄属
形态特征(Description):草本状灌木,高20-40厘米;木质茎短或成匍匐状,小枝直伸或微曲,表面细纵槽纹常不明显,节间长2.5-5.5厘米,多为3-4厘米,径约2毫米。叶2裂,鞘占全长1/3-2/3,裂片锐三角形,先端急尖。雄球花多成复穗状,常具总梗,苞片通常4对,雄蕊7-8,花丝合生,稀先端稍分离;雌球花单生,在幼枝上顶生,在老枝上腋生,常在成熟过程中基部有梗抽出,使雌球花呈侧枝顶生状,卵圆形或矩圆状卵圆形,苞片4对,下部3对合生部分占1/4-1/3,最上一对合生部分达1/2以上;雌花2,胚珠的珠被管长l毫米或稍长,直立或先端微弯,管口隙裂窄长,约占全长的1/4-1/2,裂口边缘不整齐,常被少数毛茸。雌球花成熟时肉质红色,矩圆状卵圆形或近于圆球形,长约8毫米,径6-7毫米;种子通常2粒,包于苞片内,不露出或与苞片等长,黑红色或、灰褐色,三角状卵圆形或宽卵圆形,长5-6毫米,径2.5-3.5毫米,表面具细皱纹,种脐明显,半圆形。花期5-6月,种子8-9月成熟。
分布(Distribution):产于辽宁、吉林、内蒙古、河北、山西、河南西北部及陕西等省区。适应性强,习见于山坡、平原、干燥荒地、河床及草原等处,常组成大面积的单纯群落。蒙古也有分布。
用途(Use):为重要的药用植物,生物碱含量丰富,仅次于木贼麻黄。木质茎少,易加工提炼;由于常生于平原、山坡、河床、草原等处,故易于采收,因此在药用上所用的数量往往较木贼麻黄为多,为我国提制麻黄碱的主要植物。
引自中国植物志英文版FOC Vol. 4
Ephedra sinica Stapf, Bull. Misc. Inform. Kew. 1927: 133. 1927.
草麻黄 cao ma huang | Ephedraceae  | Ephedra
Ephedra ma-huang Liu.
Subshrubs small, to 40 cm, sparsely branched; woody stems short or prostrate; branchlets straight or curved, sometimes slightly involute, internodes (2.5-)3-4(-5.5) cm × ca. 2 mm, shallowly furrowed. Leaves opposite, connate for 1/3-2/3 their length, free part subulate to narrowly triangular, to 5 mm, apex sharply pointed. Pollen cones sessile or pedunculate, solitary or in clusters at nodes, rarely terminal; bracts in 4 pairs, margin very narrow, membranous, apex obtuse or subacute; anthers 7 or 8, sessile or shortly stipitate. Seed cones terminal or axillary, solitary, oblong-ovoid or subglobose, ca. 8 × 6-7 mm at maturity; bracts in 4 pairs, connate for 1/2-3/4 their length, red and fleshy at maturity; integument tube 1-2 mm, straight or slightly curved. Seeds usually 2, black-red or grayish brown, concealed by or equaling bracts. Pollination May-Jun, seed maturity Aug-Sep. 2n = 28*.
Waste and sandy places, plains, mountain slopes; 700-1600 m. Gansu, Hebei, Heilongjiang, Jilin, Liaoning, Nei Mongol, Ningxia, Shaanxi, Shanxi [Mongolia]
It seems likely that Ephedra sinica var. pumila Florin, Kongl. Svenska Vetenskapsakad. Handl., ser. 3, 12: 11. 1933, will also be found in China. It differs from var. sinica in its very low growth habit, often curved or involute branches, shorter nodes, and seed cones with only 2 or 3 pairs of bracts. The most appropriate taxonomic rank for this taxon is uncertain.
This species has medicinal properties.
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