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倒地铃Cardiospermum halicacabum

时间:2014-01-29 09:16作者:徐晔春 点击: 次 标签: 无患子科 Sapindaceae 倒地铃属 Cardiospermu
  中文名(Chinese Name):倒地铃
学名(Scientific Name):Cardiospermum halicacabum L.
英文名(English Common Name):balloon vine
别名(Chinese Common Name):风船葛
异名(Synonym):Cardiospermum corindum L.  Cardiospermum halicacabum var. microcarpum (Kunth) Blume  Cardiospermum microcarpum Kunth  Cardiospermum acuminatum Miq.  Cardiospermum glabrum Schumach. & Thonn.  Cardiospermum luridum Blume  Cardiospermum moniliferum Sw. ex Steud.  Cardiospermum pumilum Blume  Cardiospermum truncatum A.Rich.  Corindum halicacabum (L.) Medik.  Physalis corymbosa Noronha
科属Family & Genus):无患子科(Sapindaceae)倒地铃属
形态特征(Description):草质攀援藤本,长约1-5米;茎、枝绿色,有5或6棱和同数的直槽,棱上被皱曲柔毛。二回三出复叶,轮廓为三角形;叶柄长3-4厘米;小叶近无柄,薄纸质,顶生的斜披针形或近菱形,长3-8厘米,宽1.5-2.5厘米,顶端渐尖,侧生的稍小,卵形或长椭圆形,边缘有疏锯齿或羽状分裂,腹面近无毛或有稀疏微柔毛,背面中脉和侧脉上被疏柔毛。圆锥花序少花,与叶近等长或稍长,总花梗直,长4-8厘米,卷须螺旋状;萼片4,被缘毛,外面2片圆卵形,长8-10毫米,内面2片长椭圆形,比外面2片约长1倍;花瓣乳白色,倒卵形;雄蕊(雄花)与花瓣近等长或稍长,花丝被疏而长的柔毛;子房(雌花)倒卵形或有时近球形,被短柔毛。蒴果梨形、陀螺状倒三角形或有时近长球形,高1.5-3厘米,宽2-4厘米,褐色,被短柔毛;种子黑色,有光泽,直径约5毫米,种脐心形,鲜时绿色,干时白色。花期夏秋,果期秋季至初冬。
分布(Distribution):我国东部、南部和西南部很常见,北部较少,生长于田野、灌丛、路边和林缘。广布于全世界的热带和亚热带地区。
用途(Use):全株可做药,味苦性凉,有清热利水、凉血解毒和消肿等功效。
引自中国植物志英文版:FOC Vol. 12 Page 24     
Cardiospermum halicacabum Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 1: 366. 1753.
倒地铃 dao di ling| Sapindaceae  | Cardiospermum
Cardiospermum halicacabum var. microcarpum (Kunth) Blume; C. microcarpum Kunth.
Climbers, herbaceous, 1-1.5 m. Stems and branches green, 5- or 6-sulcate, slender, glabrous or sparsely hairy. Leaves biternate, triangular in outline; petioles 3-4 cm; leaflets subsessile; blades thinly papery, margin sparsely serrate or pinnately parted, abaxially sparsely villous on midvein and lateral veins, adaxially subglabrous or sparsely pilosulose; terminal blade obliquely lanceolate or subrhombic, 3-8 × 1.5-2.5 cm, apex acuminate; lateral ones slightly smaller, ovate or narrowly elliptic. Panicles few flowered, ca. as long as or slightly longer than
leaves; peduncles straight, 4-8 cm, tendrils spiralled. Sepals 4, ciliate, outer 2 ovate, 8-10 mm, inner 2 narrowly elliptic, ca. 2 × as long as outer ones. Petals milky-white, obovate. Stamens (male flowers) ca. as long as or slightly longer than petals; filaments sparsely long villous. Ovary (female flowers) obovoid or sometimes subglobose, pubescent. Capsules brown, pearlike, turbinate-obtriangular or sometimes nearly ellipsoid, 1.5-3 × 2-4 cm, pubescent. Seeds black, shiny, ca. 5 mm in diam.; hilum green when fresh, white when dry, cordate. Fl. summer-autumn, fr. autumn-early winter.
Forest margins, shrublands, grasslands, cultivated areas, wastelands. Common in E, S, and SW China, rare in N China [common weed widely distributed in tropical and subtropical regions].
This species is used medicinally.
 






 
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