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水杉Metasequoia glyptostroboides

时间:2013-12-07 14:17作者:徐晔春 点击: 次 标签: 杉科 Taxodiaceae 水杉属 Metasequoia
  中文名(Chinese Name):水杉
学名(Scientific Name):Metasequoia glyptostroboides Hu et Cheng
英文名(English Common Name):
别名(Chinese Common Name):
异名(Synonym):Metasequoia glyptostroboides var. caespitosa Y. H. Long et Y. Wu  Metasequoia honshuenensis Silba et Callaghan  Sequoia glyptostroboides (Hu et W. C. Cheng) Weide  Metasequoia neopangaea Silba  Metasequoia honshuensis Silba & Callaghan 
FOC Vol. 4 Page 60      Login | eFloras Home | Help
科属(Family & Genus):杉科Taxodiaceae水杉属Metasequoia
形态特征(Description):乔木,高达35米,胸径达2.5米;树干基部常膨大;树皮灰色、灰褐色或暗灰色,幼树裂成薄片脱落,大树裂成长条状脱落,内皮淡紫褐色;枝斜展,小枝下垂,幼树树冠尖塔形,老树树冠广圆形,枝叶稀疏;一年生枝光滑无毛,幼时绿色,后渐变成淡褐色,二、三年生枝淡褐灰色或褐灰色;侧生小枝排成羽状,长4-15厘米,冬季凋落;主枝上的冬芽卵圆形或椭圆形,顶端钝,长约4毫米,径3毫米,芽鳞宽卵形,先端圆或钝,长宽几相等,约2-2.5毫米,边缘薄而色浅,背面有纵脊。叶条形,长0.8-3.5 (常1.3-2)厘米, 宽1-2.5(常1.5-2)毫米,上面淡绿色,下面色较淡,沿中脉有两条较边带稍宽的淡黄色气孔带, 每带有4-8条气孔线,叶在侧生小枝上列成二列,羽状,冬季与枝一同脱落。球果下垂,近四棱状球形或矩圆状球形,成熟前绿色,熟时深褐色,长1.8-2.5厘米,径1.6-2.5厘米,梗长2-4厘米,其上有交对生的条形叶; 种鳞木质,盾形,通常11-12对,交叉对生,鳞顶扁菱形,中央有一条横槽,基部楔形,高7-9毫米,能育种鳞有5-9粒种子;种子扁平,倒卵形,间或圆形或矩圆形,周围有翅,先端有凹缺,长约5毫米,径4毫米;子叶2枚,条形,长1.1-1.3厘米,宽1.5-2毫米,两面中脉微隆起,上面有气孔线,下面无气孔线;初生叶条形,交叉对生,长1-1.8厘米,下面有气孔线。花期2月下旬,球果11月成熟。
分布(Distribution):分布于四川石柱县及湖北利川县磨刀溪、水杉坝一带及湖南西北部龙山及桑植等地海拔750-1500米、气候温和、夏秋多雨、酸性黄壤土地区。
用途(Use):造林树种及四旁绿化树种。
引自植物志英文版:FOC | Family List | FOC Vol. 4 |
Metasequoia glyptostroboides Hu & W. C. Cheng, Bull. Fan Mem. Inst. Biol., n.s. 1: 154. 1948.
水杉 shui shan Taxodiaceae  | Metasequoia
 Metasequoia glyptostroboides
Image File
Metasequoia glyptostroboides var. caespitosa Y. H. Long & Y. Wu; Sequoia glyptostroboides (Hu & W. C. Cheng) Weide.
Trees to 50 m tall; trunk buttressed at base, to 2.5 m d.b.h.; bark of young trees pale orange-brown with darker flakes and exfoliating, finally dark reddish brown to gray, fissured; crown narrowly conical or pyramidal, finally broadly conical; branches ascending; branchlets pendulous, axis pinkish green or pale purple in 1st year, later brownish gray; winter buds to 5 × 3 mm, apex obtuse, scales yellowish brown, ca. 2-2.5 × 2-2.5 mm. Lateral branchlets deciduous, opposite, each subtended by leaflike scale, with longer and shorter leaves alternating irregularly, forming an ovate-elliptic outline 3-7 × 1.5-4 cm. Leaves borne at 45-60° to branchlet axis, 2-5 mm apart, bluish green or yellowish green adaxially, paler abaxially, turning orange or red in autumn, linear, 0.8-1.5 cm × 1.2-2 mm on old trees but longer on younger trees, stomatal hands 0.4-0.6 mm, indistinct, marginal bands 0.5-0.6 mm wide, apex obtuse or with hyaline mucro, more sharply acute on leaves of leader branchlets. Pollen cones ovoid, 2.5-5.5 × 2-3.8 mm; bracts triangular-ovate or obovate, ca. 4 × 3 mm, lowest minutely ciliate distally, others glabrous. Seed cones purplish black when young, oblong-ellipsoid and to 9 × 5.5 mm at pollination, subglobose and 1.4-2.5 × 1.6-2.3 cm when mature; basal cone scales 9-ovulate, middle 7-ovulate, distal 5-ovulate, apical sterile. Seeds ca. 5 × 4 mm. Pollination Feb-Mar, before leaves, seed maturity Oct-Nov.
* Riparian habitats on valley floors and in moist ravine bottoms, on acidic, montane yellow-earth soils in regions with moderate climate,
A rare species as a native plant because the valley floors are now largely under rice cultivation.
Also widely cultivated as an ornamental or planted for afforestation in Anhui, Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, Hebei, Henan, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, Liaoning, Shaanxi, Shandong, Shanxi, Sichuan, Yunnan, Zhejiang.
Lectotypified by LIN Qi & CAO Ziyu. 2007. Acta Bot. Yunnan. 29(3): 291. 2007.




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66.7%
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33.3%
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