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柽柳Tamarix chinensis

时间:2013-11-09 20:57来源:未知 作者:徐晔春 点击:
中文名( Chinese Name ): 柽柳 学名( Scientific Name ): Tamarix chinensis Lour. 英文名( English Common Name ): 别名( Chinese Common Name ): 三春柳、观音柳 异名( Synonym ): Tamarix gallica var. chinensis (Lour.) Ehrenb. Tamarix
中文名(Chinese Name):柽柳
学名(Scientific Name):Tamarix chinensis Lour.
英文名(English Common Name):
别名(Chinese Common Name):三春柳、观音柳
异名(Synonym):Tamarix gallica var. chinensis (Lour.) Ehrenb.  Tamarix elegans Spach  Tamarix juniperina Bunge
科属(Family & Genus):柽柳科(Tamaricaceae)柽柳属
形态特征(Description):乔木或灌木,高3-6(-8)米;老枝直立,暗褐红色,光亮,幼枝稠密细弱,常开展而下垂,红紫色或暗紫红色,有光泽;嫩枝繁密纤细,悬垂。叶鲜绿色,从去年生木质化生长枝上生出的绿色营养枝上的叶长圆状披针形或长卵形,长1.5-1.8毫米,稍开展,先端尖,基部背面有龙骨状隆起,常呈薄膜质;上部绿色营养枝上的叶钻形或卵状披针形,半贴生,先端渐尖而内弯,基部变窄,长1-3毫米,背面有龙骨状突起。每年开花两、三次。春季开花:总状花序侧生在去年生木质化的小枝上,长3-6厘米,宽5-7毫米,花大而少,较稀疏而纤弱点垂,小枝亦下倾;有短总花梗,或近无梗,梗生有少数苞叶或无;苞片线状长圆形,或长圆形,渐尖,与花梗等长或稍长;花梗纤细,较萼短;花5出;萼片5,狭长卵形,具短尖头,略全缘,外面2片,背面具隆脊,长0.75-1.25毫米,较花瓣略短;花瓣5,粉红色,通常卵状椭圆形或椭圆状倒卵形,稀倒卵形,长约2毫米,较花萼微长,果时宿存;花盘5裂,裂片先端圆或微凹,紫红色,肉质;雄蕊5,长于或略长于花瓣,花丝着生在花盘裂片间,自其下方近边缘处生出;子房圆锥状瓶形,花柱3,棍棒状,长约为子房之半。蒴果圆锥形。夏、秋季开花;总状花序长3 5厘米,较春生者细,生于当年生幼枝顶端,组成顶生大圆锥花序,疏松而通常下弯;花5出,较春季者略小,密生;苞片绿色,草质,较春季花的苞片狭细,较花梗长,线形至线状锥形或狭三角形,渐尖,向下变狭,基部背面有隆起,全缘;花萼三角状卵形;花瓣粉红色,直而略外斜,远比花萼长;花盘5裂,或每一裂片再2裂成10裂片状;雄蕊5,长等于花瓣或为其2倍,花药钝,花丝着生在花盘主裂片间,自其边缘和略下方生出;花柱棍棒状,其长等于子房的2/5-3/4。花期4-9月。
分布(Distribution):野生于辽宁、河北、河南、山东、江苏、安徽等省,喜生于河流冲积平原,海滨、滩头、潮湿盐碱地和沙荒地。
用途(Use):可作薪炭柴,亦可作农具用材。其细枝柔韧耐磨,多用来编筐,坚实耐用。枝叶药用为解表发汗药,有去除麻疹之效。
引自中国植物志英文版:FOC Vol. 13 Page 60, 63    
Tamarix chinensis Loureiro, Fl. Cochinch. 1: 182. 1790.
柽柳 cheng liu| Tamaricaceae  | Tamarix
Tamarix juniperina Bunge.
Trees or shrubs, 3-6(-8) m tall. Branchlets dense, often pendulous, red-purple, slender. Leaves green, those of vegetative branches slightly spreading, oblong-lanceolate or narrowly ovate, 1.5-1.8 mm, abaxially carinate at base, often thinly membranous, apex acute; those of vegetative branches in upper part subulate or ovate-lanceolate, 1-3 mm, abaxially carinate, base attenuate, apex acuminate, incurved. Flowers blooming 2 or 3 times each year. When blooming in spring, racemes lateral in pendulous, ligneous, growing branchlets of previous year, 3-6 cm × 5-7 mm, few flowered, lax, and pendulous; peduncles short or nearly absent, with or without bracts; bracts linear-oblong or oblong, equaling or slightly exceeding pedicels, apex acuminate; pedicels shorter than calyx, slender; flowers 5-merous; sepals 5, narrowly ovate, 0.8-1.3 mm, slightly shorter than petals, outer 2 carinate abaxially, margin slightly entire, apex mucronate; petals 5, pink, usually ovate-elliptic or elliptic-obovate, rarely obovate, ca. 2 mm, slightly exceeding calyx, persistent in fruit; disk purple-red, fleshy, 5-fid; lobes obtuse or retuse at apex; stamens 5, exceeding petals; filaments inserted between disk lobes; ovary conic; styles 3, clavate, ca. 1/2 as long as ovary. Capsule conic. When blooming in summer and autumn, racemes 3-5 cm, smaller than those in spring, forming terminal large panicles on branches of current year; flowers 5-merous, slightly smaller than those in spring, dense; bracts green, linear to linear-conic or narrowly triangular, smaller and narrower than those of spring flowers, longer than pedicels, abaxially raised at base, base attenuate, margin entire, apex acuminate; calyx triangular-ovate; petals pink, straight or slightly oblique outward, much exceeding calyx; disk 5-lobed, or subdivided into 10 lobules; stamens 5, equaling or ca. 2 × as long as petals; anthers obtuse; filaments inserted between disk lobes; styles clavate, 2/5-3/4 as long as ovary. Fl. Apr-Sep. 2n = 24*.
● Plains along rivers, seashores, moist salty places, sandy places. Anhui, Hebei, Henan, Jiangsu, Liaoning, Shandong; also widely cultivated in S and SW provinces.
 






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