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海南红楣Anneslea fragrans

时间:2013-11-09 22:00来源:未知 作者:徐晔春 点击:
中文名( Chinese Name ): 海南红楣 学名( Scientific Name ): Anneslea fragrans Wall. 英文名( English Common Name ): 别名( Chinese Common Name ): 茶梨、猪头果 异名( Synonym ): Anneslea fragrans var. alpina (Li) Kobuski Anneslea
中文名(Chinese Name):海南红楣
学名(Scientific Name):Anneslea fragrans Wall.
英文名(English Common Name):
别名(Chinese Common Name):茶梨、猪头果
异名(Synonym):Anneslea fragrans var. alpina (Li) Kobuski  Anneslea fragrans var. rubriflora (Hu et H. T. Chang) L. K. Ling  Anneslea fragrans var. hainanensis Kobuski  Anneslea rubriflora Hu et H. T. Chang  Anneslea lanceolata (Hayata) Kaneh.  Anneslea fragrans var. lanceolate Hayata  Anneslea hainanensis (Kobuski) Hu  Anneslea alpina H. L. Li  Callosmia fragrans (Wall.) C. Presl  Mountnorrisia fragrans (Wall.) Szyszyl.  Daydonia fragrans (Wall.) Britten 
科属(Family & Genus):山茶科(Theaceae)茶梨属
形态特征(Description):乔木,高约15米,有时为灌木状或小乔木;树皮黑褐色;小枝灰白色或灰褐色,圆柱形,无毛。叶革质,通常聚生在嫩枝近顶端,呈假轮生状,叶形变异很大,通常为椭圆形或长圆状椭圆形至狭椭圆形,有时近披针状椭圆形,偶有为阔椭圆形至卵状椭圆形,长8-13 (-15)厘米,宽3-5.5 (-7)厘米,偶有为6-7厘米,宽2-2.5厘米,顶端短渐尖,有时短尖,尖顶钝,偶有近钝形或圆钝形,基部楔形或阔楔形,边全缘或具稀疏浅钝齿,稍反卷,上面深色,有光泽,下面淡绿白色,密被红褐色腺点;中脉在上面稍凹下,下面隆起,侧脉10-12对,上面稍明显,下面不甚明显,有时稍隆起;叶柄长2-3厘米。花数朵至10多朵螺旋状聚生于枝端或叶腋,花梗长3-5 (-7)厘米,偶有仅约2厘米;苞片2,卵圆形或三角状卵形,有时近圆形,长3-4.5毫米,外面无毛,边缘疏生腺点;萼片5,质厚,淡红色,阔卵形或近于圆形,长1-1.5厘米,顶端略尖或近圆形,无毛,边缘在最外1片常具腺点或齿裂状,其余的近全缘;花瓣5,基部连合,长5-7毫米,裂片5,阔卵形,长13-15毫米,顶端锐尖,基部稍窄缩;雄蕊30一40枚,花丝基部与花瓣基部合生达5毫米,花药线形,基部着生,药隔顶端长突出;子房半下位,无毛,2-3-室,胚珠每室数个,花柱长1.5-2毫米,顶端2-3裂。果实浆果状,革质,近于下位,仅顶端与花萼分离,圆球形或椭圆状球形,直径2-3.5厘米,2-3室,不开裂或熟后呈不规则开裂,花萼宿存,厚革质;种子每室1-3个,具红色假种皮。花期1-3月,果期8-9月。
分布(Distribution):产福建、江西、湖南、广东、海南、广西、贵州及云南等地;多生于海拔300-2500米的山坡林中或林缘沟谷地以及山坡溪沟边阴湿地。东南亚等地也有。
用途(Use):
引自中国植物志英文版:FOC Vol. 12 Page 435 
Anneslea fragrans Wallich, Pl. Asiat. Rar. 1: 5. 1829.
茶梨 cha li| Theaceae  | Anneslea
Anneslea alpina H. L. Li; A. fragrans var. alpina (H. L. Li) Kobuski; A. fragrans var. hainanensis Kobuski; A. fragrans var. lanceolata Hayata; A. fragrans var. rubriflora (Hu & Hung T. Chang) L. K. Ling; A. hainanensis (Kobuski) Hu; A. lanceolata (Hayata) Kanehira; A. rubriflora Hu & Hung T. Chang; Callosmia fragrans (Wallich) C. Presl; Mountnorrisia fragrans (Wallich) Szyszyłowicz.
Shrubs or trees, 3-15 m tall. Bark dark brown. Young branches grayish brown; current year branchlets reddish brown, glabrous; terminal buds ovate, glabrous. Petiole 2-3.5 cm; leaf blade ovate, elliptic, obovate-elliptic, oblong, or oblong-lanceolate, (4-)6-16 × (2.5-)3-7.3 cm, leathery to thinly leathery, abaxially pale green or glaucescent green and reddish brown glandular punctate, adaxially dark green and shiny, midvein abaxially elevated and adaxially impressed or rarely raised, secondary veins 10-12 on each side of midvein and slightly raised to obscure on both surfaces, base cuneate to broadly cuneate, margin entire or apically sparsely serrate, apex obtuse,
rounded, or rarely obtusely acute. Flowers axillary, several to more than 10 in a corymb. Pedicel (2-)3-6(-7) cm; bracteoles 2, broadly ovate to triangular-ovate, ca. 4 × 3-3.5 mm, margin sparsely glandular. Sepals reddish, broadly ovate, 1-1.5 cm, basally slightly connate, margin glandular. Petals pale yellow, broadly ovate, ca. 1.5 cm, basally connate for ca. 5 mm, apex acute. Stamens 30-40, 1.2-1.5 cm; filaments basally connate for ca. 5 mm; anthers linear, glabrous, connective exserted. Ovary half inferior, glabrous, 2- or 3(-5)-loculed; style 1.5-2 cm, apically 2- or 3(-5)-lobed. Fruit globose to ellipsoid, (1-)2-3.5 cm in diam., 2- or 3(-5)-loculed with 2 or 3 seeds per locule, dehiscent between between persistent enlarged sepals. Seeds long obovate, 7-12 × 4.5-7 mm, with a fleshy red outer layer. Fl. Oct-Mar, fr. Jul-Sep.
Forests or thickets on mountain slopes or in valleys; 300-2700 m. S Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi, SE Guizhou, Hainan, S Hunan, S Jiangxi, S Taiwan, S and W Yunnan [Cambodia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, Thailand, Vietnam].
Anneslea fragrans is a widespread and somewhat variable species with several varieties having been recognized primarily on leaf character differences. Further study is needed to confirm whether these differences justify taxonomic recognition.
 






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