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苹婆Sterculia monosperma

时间:2013-11-09 19:55来源:未知 作者:徐晔春 点击:
中文名( Chinese Name ): 苹婆 学名( Scientific Name ): Sterculia monosperma Vent. 英文名( English Common Name ): 别名( Chinese Common Name ): 凤眼果、七姐果 异名( Synonym ): Sterculia nobilis Smith Sterculia nobilis. Salisb.
中文名(Chinese Name):苹婆
学名(Scientific Name):Sterculia monosperma Vent.
英文名(English Common Name):
别名(Chinese Common Name):凤眼果、七姐果
异名(Synonym):Sterculia nobilis Smith  Sterculia nobilis. Salisb. R. Brown  Sterculia monosperma var. monosperma
科属(Family & Genus):梧桐科(Sterculiaceae)苹婆属
形态特征(Description):乔木,树皮褐黑色,小枝幼时略有星状毛。叶薄革质,矩圆形或椭圆形,长8-25厘米,宽5-15厘米,顶端急尖或钝,基部浑圆或钝,两面均无毛;叶柄长2-3.5厘米,托叶早落。圆锥花序顶生或腋生,柔弱且披散,长达20厘米,有短柔毛;花梗远比花长;萼初时乳白色,后转为淡红色,钟状,外面有短柔毛,长约10毫米,5裂,裂片条状披针形,先端渐尖且向内曲,在顶端互相粘合,与钟状萼筒等长;雄花较多,雌雄蕊柄弯曲,无毛,花药黄色;雌花较少,略大,子房圆球形,有5条沟纹,密被毛,花柱弯曲,柱头5浅裂。蓇葖果鲜红色,厚革质,矩圆状卵形,长约5厘米,宽约2-3厘米,顶端有喙,每果内有种子1-4个;种子椭圆形或矩圆形,黑褐色,直径约1.5厘米。花期4-5月,但在10-11月常可见少数植株开第二次花。
分布(Distribution):产广东、广西、福建、云南和台湾,广州附近和珠江三角洲多有栽培。印度、越南、印度尼西亚也有分布,多为人工栽培。
用途(Use):苹婆的种子可食,煮熟后味如栗子,惜结实率不高;如能注意选育种,提高结实率,是一种值得提倡的木本粮食植物。
引自中国植物志英文版:FOC Vol. 12 Page 305, 306, 309
Sterculia monosperma Ventenat, Jard. Malmaison. 2: t. 91. 1805.
苹婆 ping po| Sterculiaceae  | Sterculia
Trees; bark brown-black. Branchlets at first minutely stellate. Leaves simple; stipules caducous; petiole 2-3.5 cm; leaf blade oblong or elliptic, 8-25 × 5-15 cm, thinly leathery, glabrous, base rounded or obtuse, apex acute or obtuse. Inflorescence terminal or axillary, paniculate, slender and lax, to 20 cm, pubescent. Pedicels much longer than flowers. Calyx cream-white, becoming reddish, campanulate, ca. 10 mm, abaxially pubescent, lobes linear-lanceolate, as long as calyx tube, apex acuminate, incurved and cohering apically, as long as calyx tube. Male flowers many, androgynophore curved, glabrous, anthers yellow. Female flowers fewer, slightly larger. Ovary globose, with 5 grooves, densely hairy; style curved; stigma shallowly 5-lobed. Follicles red, oblong-ovate, ca. 5 × 2-3 cm, 1-4-seeded, thickly leathery, apex beaked. Seeds black-brown, ellipsoid or oblong, ca. 1.5 cm. Fl. Apr-May, rarely Oct-Nov.
Dense forests, also often cultivated. SE Fujian, S Guangdong, Guangxi, Taiwan, S Yunnan [India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, Vietnam].







 
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