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沙梨Pyrus pyrifolia

时间:2013-11-07 11:58来源:未知 作者:徐晔春 点击:
中文名( Chinese Name ): 沙梨 学名( Scientific Name ): Pyrus pyrifolia (Burm. f.) Nakai 英文名( English Common Name ): Chinese pear 别名( Chinese Common Name ): 麻安梨 异名( Synonym ): Pyrus serotina Rehder 科属( Family Genu
中文名(Chinese Name):沙梨
学名(Scientific Name):Pyrus pyrifolia (Burm. f.) Nakai
英文名(English Common Name):Chinese pear
别名(Chinese Common Name):麻安梨
异名(Synonym):Pyrus serotina Rehder
科属(Family & Genus):蔷薇科(Rosaceae)梨属
形态特征(Description):乔木,高达7-15米;小枝嫩时具黄褐色长柔毛或绒毛,不久脱落,二年生枝紫褐色或暗褐色,具稀疏皮孔;冬芽长卵形,先端圆钝,鳞片边缘和先端稍具长绒毛。叶片卵状椭圆形或卵形,长7-12厘米,宽4-6.5厘米,先端长尖,基部圆形或近心形,稀宽楔形,边缘有刺芒锯齿。微向内合拢,上下两面无毛或嫩时有褐色绵毛;叶柄长3-4.5厘米,嫩时被绒毛,不久脱落;托叶膜质,线状披针形,长1-1.5厘米,先端渐尖,全缘,边缘具有长柔毛,早落。伞形总状花序,具花6-9朵,直径5-7厘米;总花梗和花梗幼时微具柔毛,花梗长3.5-5厘米;苞片膜质,线形,边缘有长柔毛;花直径2.5-3.5厘米;萼片三角卵形,长约5毫米,先端渐尖,边缘有腺齿;外面无毛,内面密被褐色绒毛;花瓣卵形,长15-17毫米,先端啮齿状,基部具短爪,白色;雄蕊20,长约等于花瓣之半;花柱5,稀4,光滑无毛,约与雄蕊等长。果实近球形,浅褐色,有浅色斑点,先端微向下陷,萼片脱落;种子卵形,微扁,长8-10毫米,深褐色。花期4月,果期8月。
分布(Distribution):产安徽、江苏、浙江、江西、湖北、湖南、贵州、四川、云南、广东、广西、福建,适宜生海拔100-1400米长在温暖而多雨的地区。
用途(Use):
引自中国植物志英文版:FOC Vol. 9 Page 177     
Pyrus pyrifolia (N. L. Burman) Nakai, Bot. Mag. (Tokyo). 40: 564. 1926.
沙梨 sha li| Rosaceae  | Pyrus
Ficus pyrifolia N. L. Burman, Fl. Ind. 226. 1768; Pyrus serotina Rehder.
Trees to 7–15 m tall. Branchlets purplish brown or dark brown when old, terete, tawny villous or tawny tomentose when young, soon glabrescent, glabrous when old, sparsely lenticellate; buds narrowly ovoid, apex obtuse; scales tomentose at margin and apex. Stipules caducous, linear-lanceolate, 1–1.5 cm, membranous, margin villous and entire, apex acuminate; petiole 3–4.5 cm, initially tomentose, glabrescent; leaf blade ovate-elliptic or ovate, 7–12 × 4–6.5 cm, glabrous or brown lanate when young, base rounded or subcordate, rarely broadly cuneate, margin spinulose-serrate, apex acute. Raceme umbel-like, 6–9-flowered; peduncle sparsely pubescent when young; bracts caducous, linear, 1–1.4 cm, membranous, villous at margin, apex acuminate. Pedicel 3.5–5 cm; sparsely pubescent when young. Flowers 2.5–3.5 cm in diam. Hypanthium cupular, abaxially glabrous. Sepals triangular-ovate, ca. 5 mm, abaxially glabrous, adaxially brown tomentose, margin glandular denticulate, apex acuminate. Petals white, ovate, 1.5–1.7 cm, base shortly clawed, apex rounded. Stamens 20, ca. 1/2 as long as petals. Ovary 5- or 4-loculed, with 2 ovules per locule; styles 5, rarely 4, nearly as long as stamens, glabrous. Pome brownish, with pale dots, subglobose, 2–2.5 cm in diam., (4- or)5-loculed; sepals caducous; fruiting pedicel 3.5–5.5 cm, subglabrous. Fl. Apr, fr. Aug. 2n = 34*, 51*.
Warm rainy regions; 100--1400 m. Anhui, Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, Sichuan, Yunnan, Zhejiang [Laos, Vietnam].
Many varieties of pear cultivated in the regions of the Chang Jiang and Zhu Jiang rivers belong to this species.
 




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