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川梨Pyrus pashia

时间:2018-06-28 12:41来源:未知 作者:徐晔春 点击:
中文名( Chinese Name ):川梨 学名( Scientific Name ): Pyrus pashia Buch.-Ham. ex D. Don 英文名( English Common Name ): 别名( Chinese Common Name ): 棠梨 异名( Synonym ): 科属( Family Genus ): 蔷薇科(Rosaceae)梨属 形态特
中文名(Chinese Name):川梨
学名(Scientific Name):Pyrus pashia Buch.-Ham. ex D. Don
英文名(English Common Name):
别名(Chinese Common Name):棠梨
异名(Synonym): 
科属(Family & Genus):蔷薇科(Rosaceae)梨属
形态特征(Description):乔木,高达12米,常具枝刺;小枝圆柱形,幼嫩时有绵状毛,以后脱落,二年生枝条紫褐色或暗褐色;冬芽卵形,先端圆钝,鳞片边缘有短柔毛。叶片卵形至长卵形,稀椭圆形,长4-7厘米,宽2-5厘米,先端渐尖或急尖,基部圆形,稀宽楔形,边缘有钝锯齿,在幼苗或萌蘖上的叶片常具分裂并有尖锐锯齿,幼嫩时有绒毛,以后脱落;叶柄长1.5-3厘米;托叶膜质,线状披针形,不久即脱落。伞形总状花序,具花7-13朵,直径4-5厘米,总花梗和花梗均密被绒毛,逐渐脱落,果期无毛,或近于无毛,花梗长2-3厘米;苞片膜质,线形,长8-10毫米,两面均被绒毛;花直径2-2.5厘米;萼筒杯状,外面密被绒毛;萼片三角形,长3-6毫米,先端急尖,全缘,内外两面均被绒毛;花瓣倒卵形,长8-10毫米,宽4-6毫米,先端圆或啮齿状,基部具短爪,白色;雄蕊25-30,稍短于花瓣;花柱3-5,无毛。果实近球形,直径1-1.5厘米,褐色,有斑点,萼片早落,果梗长2-3厘米。花期3-4月,果期8-9月。
分布(Distribution):产四川、云南、贵州。生山谷斜坡、丛林中,海拔650-3000米。印度、缅甸、不丹、尼泊尔、老挝、越南、泰国也有分布。
用途(Use):
引自中国植物志英文版:FOC Vol. 9 Page 178     
Pyrus pashia Buchanan-Hamilton ex D. Don, Prodr. Fl. Nepal. 236. 1825.
川梨 chuan li | Rosaceae  | Pyrus
Trees to 12 m tall, with branches often armed. Branchlets purplish brown or dark brown when old, terete, lanate when young, glabrous when old; buds ovoid, apex obtuse; scales puberulous along margin. Stipules caducous, linear-lanceolate, 4–8 mm, membranous, adaxially pubescent, margin entire, apex acuminate; petiole 1.5–3 cm, initially pilose, soon glabrescent; leaf blade ovate or narrowly ovate, rarely elliptic, 4–7 × 2–5 cm, tomentose when young, glabrescent, base rounded, rarely broadly cuneate, margin obtusely serrate, apex acuminate or acute. Raceme umbel-like, 7–13-flowered; peduncle initially tomentose, glabrescent; bracts caducous, linear, 8–10 mm, membranous, both surfaces tomentose, margin entire, apex acuminate. Pedicel 2–3 cm, initially tomentose, glabrescent. Flowers 2–5 cm in diam. Hypanthium cupular, abaxially tomentose. Sepals triangular, 3–6 mm, both surfaces tomentose, margin entire, apex acute, acuminate, or obtuse. Petals white, obovate, 8–10 × 4–6 mm, base shortly clawed, apex rounded. Stamens 25–30, slightly shorter than petals. Ovary 3–5-loculed, with 2 ovules per locule; styles 3–5, nearly as long as stamens, glabrous. Pome brown, with pale dots, subglobose, 1–1.5 cm in diam.; sepals caducous; fruiting pedicel 2–3 cm, subglabrous. Fl. Mar–Apr, fr. Aug–Sep. 2n = 34*.
Valleys, among shrubs; 600--3000 m. Guizhou, Sichuan, Xizang, Yunnan [Bhutan, India, Kashmir, Laos, Myanmar, Nepal, W Pakistan, Sikkim, Thailand, Vietnam].
This tree is cultivated in Yunnan, and is often used as stock for grafting pear cultivars.
 






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