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毛山荆子Malus mandshurica

时间:2013-11-07 11:41来源:未知 作者:徐晔春 点击:
中文名( Chinese Name ):毛山荆子 学名( Scientific Name ): Malus mandshurica (Maxim.) Kom. ex Juz. 英文名( English Common Name ): 别名( Chinese Common Name ): 辽山荆子 异名( Synonym ): Malus manshurica (Maxim.) Kom. Malus bacc
中文名(Chinese Name):毛山荆子
学名(Scientific Name):Malus mandshurica (Maxim.) Kom. ex Juz.
英文名(English Common Name):
别名(Chinese Common Name):辽山荆子
异名(Synonym):Malus manshurica (Maxim.) Kom.  Malus baccata var. mandshurica (Maxim.) C. K. Schneid.  Pyrus baccata var. mandshurica Maxim.  Malus baccata subsp. mandshurica (Maxim.) Likhonos  Malus baccata var. manshurica (Maxim.) C.K.Schneid.  Malus mandshurica subsp. sachalinensis Ponomarenko  Malus mandshurica subsp. zhukovskyi Ponomarenko 
科属Family & Genus):蔷薇科(Rosaceae)苹果属
形态特征(Description):乔木,高达15米;小枝细弱,圆柱形:幼嫩时密被短柔毛,老时逐渐脱落,紫褐色或暗褐色;冬芽卵形,先端渐尖,无毛或仅在鳞片边缘微有短柔毛,红褐色。叶片卵形、椭圆形至倒卵形,长5-8厘米,宽3-4厘米,先端急尖或渐尖,基部楔形或近圆形,边缘有细锯齿,基部锯齿浅钝近于全缘,下面中脉及侧脉上具短柔毛或近于无毛;叶柄长3-4厘米,具稀疏短柔毛;托叶叶质至膜质,线状披针形,长5-7毫米,先端渐尖,边缘有稀疏腺齿,内面有疏生短柔毛,早落。伞形花序,具花3-6朵,无总梗,集生在小枝顶端,直径6-8厘米;花梗长3-5厘米,有疏生短柔毛;苞片小,膜质,线状披针形,很早脱落;花直径3-3.5厘米;萼筒外面有疏生短柔毛;萼片披针形,先端渐尖,全缘,长5-7毫米,内面被绒毛,比萼筒稍长;花瓣长倒卵形,长1.5-2厘米,基部有短爪,白色;雄蕊30,花丝长短不齐,约等于花瓣之半或稍长;花柱4,稀5,基部具绒毛,较雄蕊稍长。果实椭圆形或倒卵形,直径8-12毫米,红色,萼片脱落;果梗长3-5厘米。花期5-6月,果期8-9月。
分布(Distribution):黑龙江、吉林、辽宁、内蒙古、山西、陕西、甘肃。生山坡杂木林中,山顶及山沟也有分布,海拔100-2100米。
用途(Use):
引自中国植物志英文版:FOC Vol. 9 Page 181     
Malus mandshurica (Maximowicz) Komarov ex Juzepczuk, Fl. URSS. 9: 371. 1939.
毛山荆子 mao shan jiang zi| Rosaceae  | Malus
Pyrus baccata Linnaeus var. mandshurica Maximowicz, Bull. Acad. Imp. Sci. Saint-Pétersbourg 19: 170. 1874; Malus baccata (Linnaeus) Borkhausen subsp. mandshurica (Komarov) Likhonos; M. baccata var. mandshurica (Maximowicz) C. K. Schneider.
Trees to 15 m tall. Branchlets purplish brown, terete, densely puberulous when young, glabrescent; buds reddish brown, ovoid, glabrous or scales slightly puberulous at margin. Stipules caducous, linear-lanceolate, 5–7 mm, herbaceous or membranous, adaxially sparsely puberulous, margin sparsely glandular denticulate, apex acuminate; petiole 3–4 cm, sparsely puberulous; leaf blade ovate, elliptic, or obovate, 5–8 × 3–4 cm, abaxially puberulous or subglabrous along midvein and lateral veins, base cuneate or subrounded, margin serrulate, apex acute or acuminate. Corymb sessile, at ends of branchlets, umbel-like, 6–8 cm in diam., 3–6-flowered; bracts caducous, linear-lanceolate, small, membranous, margin entire or glandular denticulate, apex acuminate. Pedicel 3–5 cm, sparsely puberulous. Flowers 3–3.5 cm in diam. Hypanthium campanulate, abaxially pubescent. Sepals lanceolate, 5–7 mm, slightly longer than hypanthium, adaxially tomentose, margin entire, apex acuminate. Petals white, narrowly obovate, 1.5–2 cm, base shortly clawed, apex rounded. Stamens 30, unequal, ca. 1/2 as long as petals or longer. Ovary 4- or 5-loculed, with 2 ovules per locule; styles 4(or 5), slightly longer than stamens, tomentose basally. Pome red, ellipsoid or obovoid, 0.8–1.2 cm in diam. ; fruiting pedicel 3–5 cm, slightly puberulous; sepals caducous; with a small scar at apex. Fl. May–Jul, fr. Aug–Sep. 2n = 34*.
Mixed forests on slopes, mountain summits, valleys; 100--2100 m. Gansu, Hebei, Heilongjiang, Jilin, Liaoning, Nei Mongol, Shaanxi, Shanxi [Russia].
In NE China, this species is often used as stock for grafting Malus pumila and M. asiatica.




 
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