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湖北海棠 Malus hupehensis

时间:2013-11-07 11:40来源:未知 作者:徐晔春 点击:
中文名( Chinese Name ): 湖北海棠 学名( Scientific Name ): Malus hupehensis (Pamp.) Rehder 英文名( English Common Name ): Chinese crab apple 别名( Chinese Common Name ): 野花红 异名( Synonym ): Malus domestica var. hupehensis
中文名(Chinese Name):湖北海棠
学名(Scientific Name):Malus hupehensis (Pamp.) Rehder
英文名(English Common Name):Chinese crab apple
别名(Chinese Common Name):野花红
异名(Synonym):Malus domestica var. hupehensis (Pamp.) Likhonos  Malus theifera Rehder
科属(Family & Genus):蔷薇科(Rosaceae)苹果属
形态特征(Description):乔木,高达8米;小枝最初有短柔毛,不久脱落,老枝紫色至紫褐色;冬芽卵形,先端急尖,鳞片边缘有疏生短柔毛,暗紫色。叶片卵形至卵状椭圆形,长5-10厘米,宽2.5-4厘米,先端渐尖,基部宽楔形,稀近圆形,边缘有细锐锯齿,嫩时具稀疏短柔毛,不久脱落无毛,常呈紫红色;叶柄长1-3厘米,嫩时有稀疏短柔毛,逐渐脱落;托叶草质至膜质,线状披针形,先端渐尖,有疏生柔毛,早落。伞房花序,具花4-6朵,花梗长3-6厘米,无毛或稍有长柔毛;苞片膜质,披针形,早落;花直径3.5-4厘米;萼筒外面无毛或稍有长柔毛;萼片三角卵形,先端渐尖或急尖,长4-5毫米,外面无毛,内面有柔毛,略带紫色,与萼筒等长或稍短;花瓣倒卵形,长约1.5厘米,基部有短爪,粉白色或近白色;雄蕊20,花丝长短不齐,约等于花瓣之半;花柱3,稀4,基部有长绒毛,较雄蕊稍长。果实椭圆形或近球形,直径约1厘米,黄绿色稍带红晕,萼片脱落;果梗长2-4厘米。花期4-5月,果期8-9月。
分布(Distribution):产湖北、湖南、江西、江苏、浙江、安徽、福建、广东、甘肃、陕西、河南、山西、山东、四川、云南、贵州,生海拔50-2900米山坡或山谷丛林中。
用途(Use):春季满树缀以粉白色花朵,秋季结实累累,甚为美丽,可作观赏树种。
引自中国植物志英文版:FOC Vol. 9 Page 182
Malus hupehensis (Pampanini) Rehder, J. Arnold Arbor. 14: 207. 1933.
湖北海棠 hu bei hai tang | Rosaceae  | Malus
Pyrus hupehensis Pampanini, Nuovo Giorn. Bot. Ital., n.s., 17: 291. 1910, not (C. K. Schneider) Bean (1933); Malus domestica Borkhausen var. hupehensis (Pampanini) Likhonos.
Trees to 8 m tall. Branchlets initially dark green, purple or purplish brown when old, terete, initially puberulous, glabrous when old; buds dark purple, ovoid; scales sparsely ciliate at margin. Stipules caducous, linear-lanceolate, 5–6 mm, herbaceous or membranous, sparsely pubescent, margin sparsely glandular denticulate, apex acuminate; petiole 1–3 cm, sparsely puberulous when young, glabrescent; leaf blade ovate or ovate-elliptic, 5–10 × 2.5–4 cm, sparsely puberulous when young, glabrescent, base broadly cuneate, rarely rounded, margin acutely serrulate, apex acuminate. Corymb 4–6 cm in diam., 4–6-flowered; bracts caducous, lanceolate, membranous, margin sparsely glandular serrate when young, apex acuminate. Pedicel 3–6 cm, sparsely villous when young, later glabrous. Flowers 3.5–4 cm diam. Hypanthium campanulate, adaxially glabrous or sparsely villous. Sepals triangular-ovate, 4–5 mm, ca. as long as or shorter than hypanthium, abaxially glabrous, adaxially pubescent, margin entire, apex acuminate or acute. Petals pink in bud, becoming white, obovate, ca. 1.5 cm, base shortly clawed, apex rounded. Stamens 20 unequal, ca. 1/2 as long as petals. Ovary 3- or 4-loculed, with 2 ovules per locule; styles 3(or 4), slightly longer than stamens, tomentose basally. Pome yellowish green, tinged red, ellipsoid or subglobose, ca. 1 cm in diam.; fruiting pedicel 3–6 cm, glabrous; sepals caducous; with a small scar at apex. Fl. Apr–May, fr. Aug–Sep. 2n = 51*, 68*.
Slopes, valley thickets; sea level to 2900 m. Anhui, Fujian, Gansu, Guangdong, Guizhou, Henan, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, Shaanxi, Shandong, Shanxi, Zhejiang.
This species is used as grafting stock for apple trees in Hubei and Sichuan. Its young leaves can be processed as a tea substitute. It has showy flowers in the spring and abundant, beautiful fruit in the autumn, and can be used as an ornamental tree.
 






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