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山荆子Malus baccata

时间:2013-11-07 11:38来源:未知 作者:徐晔春 点击:
中文名( Chinese Name ): 山荆子 学名( Scientific Name ): Malus baccata (L.) Borkh. 英文名( English Common Name ): Siberian crab apple 别名( Chinese Common Name ): 林荆子、山定子 异名( Synonym ): Malus sibirica Borkh. Malus ba
中文名(Chinese Name):山荆子
学名(Scientific Name):Malus baccata (L.) Borkh.
英文名(English Common Name):Siberian crab apple
别名(Chinese Common Name):林荆子、山定子
异名(Synonym):Malus sibirica Borkh.  Malus baccata var. sibirica (Borkh.) C. K. Schneid.  Pyrus baccata L.  Malus pallasiana Juzep.
科属(Family & Genus):蔷薇科(Rosaceae)苹果属
形态特征(Description):乔木,高达10-14米,树冠广圆形,幼枝细弱,微屈曲,圆柱形,无毛,红褐色,老枝暗褐色;冬芽卵形,先端渐尖,鳞片边缘微具绒毛,红褐色。叶片椭圆形或卵形,长3-8厘米,宽2-3.5厘米,先端渐尖,稀尾状渐尖,基部楔形或圆形,边缘有细锐锯齿,嫩时稍有短柔毛或完全无毛;叶柄长2-5厘米,幼时有短柔毛及少数腺体,不久即全部脱落,无毛;托叶膜质,披针形,长约3毫米,全缘或有腺齿,早落。伞形花序,具花4-6朵,无总梗,集生在小枝顶端,直径5-7厘米;花梗细长,1.5-4厘米,无毛;苞片膜质,线状披针形,边缘具有腺齿,无毛,早落;花直径3-3.5厘米;萼筒外面无毛;萼片披针形,先端渐尖,全缘,长5-7毫米,外面无毛,内面被绒毛,长于萼筒;花瓣倒卵形,长2-2.5厘米,先端圆钝,基部有短爪,白色;雄蕊15-20,长短不齐,约等于花瓣之半;花柱5或4,基部有长柔毛,较雄蕊长。果实近球形,直径8-10毫米,红色或黄色,柄洼及萼洼稍微陷入,萼片脱落;果梗长3-4厘米。花期4-6月,果期9-10月。
分布(Distribution):产东北、内蒙古、河北、山西、山东、陕西、甘肃,生海拔50-1500米山坡杂木林中及山谷阴处灌木丛中。分布于蒙古、朝鲜、俄罗斯等地。
用途(Use):幼树树冠圆锥形,老时圆形,早春开放白色花朵,秋季结成小球形红黄色果实,经久不落,很美丽,可作庭园观赏树种。
引自中国植物志英文版:FOC Vol. 9 Page 181     
Malus baccata (Linnaeus) Borkhausen, Theor. Prakt. Handb. Forstbot. 2: 1280. 1803.
山荆子 shan jiang zi| Rosaceae  | Malus
Pyrus baccata Linnaeus, Mant. Pl. 75. 1767; Malus baccata f. gracilis Rehder; M. baccata var. sibirica (Maximowicz) C. K. Schneider; M. sibirica Borkhausen.
Trees to 10–14 m tall, with arching or pendulous branches. Branchlets reddish brown, terete, glabrous; buds reddish brown, ovoid, scales tomentose at margin. Stipules caducous, lanceolate, ca. 3 mm, membranous, margin entire or with sparse glandular teeth, apex acuminate; petiole 2–5 cm, puberulous, with few glands when young, glabrescent; leaf blade elliptic or ovate, 3–8 × 2–3.5 cm, glabrous or slightly puberulous when young, base cuneate or rounded, margin serrate, apex acuminate, rarely caudate-acuminate. Corymb at apices of branchlets, umbel-like, 5–7 cm in diam., 4–6-flowered; bracts caducous, linear-lanceolate, membranous, glabrous, margin glandular denticulate, apex acuminate. Pedicel 1.5–4 cm, slender, glabrous. Flowers 3–3.5 cm in diam. Hypanthium campanulate, glabrous. Sepals lanceolate, 5–7 mm, longer than hypanthium, abaxially glabrous, adaxially tomentose, margin entire, apex long acuminate. Petals white, obovate, 2–2.5 cm, base shortly clawed, apex obtuse-rounded. Stamens 15–20, unequal, ca. 1/2 as long as petals. Ovary 5- or 4-loculed, with 2 ovules per locule; styles 5 or 4, longer than stamens, densely villous basally. Pome red or yellow, subglobose, 8–10 mm in diam., with an obscure scar at apex; fruiting pedicel 3–4 cm, glabrous; sepals caducous. Fl. Apr–Jun, fr. Sep–Oct. 2n = 34*.
Mixed forests on slopes, among shrubs in valleys; sea level to 1500 m. Gansu, Hebei, Heilongjiang, Jilin, Liaoning, Nei Mongol, Shaanxi, Shandong, Shanxi, Xinjiang, Xizang [Bhutan, India, Kashmir, Korea, Mongolia, Nepal, Russia (Siberia)].
This is a beautiful, ornamental tree grown for its showy flowers and red or yellow fruit. It is commonly used as stock to graft Malus pumila and M. asiatica in N and NE China.
 




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