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木瓜Chaenomeles sinensis

时间:2013-12-02 21:22来源:未知 作者:徐晔春 点击:
中文名( Chinese Name ): 木瓜 学名( Scientific Name ): Pseudocydonia sinensis (Thouin) C.K. Schneid. 英文名( English Common Name ): Chinese-quince 别名( Chinese Common Name ): 榠楂、木李 异名( Synonym ): Cydonia sinensis Thou
中文名(Chinese Name):木瓜
学名(Scientific Name):Pseudocydonia sinensis (Thouin) C.K. Schneid.
英文名(English Common Name):Chinese-quince
别名(Chinese Common Name):榠楂、木李
异名(Synonym):Cydonia sinensis Thouin  Pseudocydonia sinensis (Thouin) C. K. Schneid.  Pyrus sinensis (Thouin) Poir.  Pyrus cathayensis Hemsl.  Pyrus chinensis Spreng.  Chaenomeles chinensis (Dum.Cours.) Koehne  Malus sinensis Dum.Cours.  Malus communis var. chinensis (Dum.Cours.) Wenz.
科属(Family & Genus):蔷薇科(Rosaceae)木瓜属
形态特征(Description):灌木或小乔木,高达5-10米,树皮成片状脱落;小枝无刺,圆柱形,幼时被柔毛,不久即脱落,紫红色,二年生枝无毛,紫褐色;冬芽半圆形,先端圆钝,无毛,紫褐色。叶片椭圆卵形或椭圆长圆形,稀倒卵形,长5-8厘米,宽3.5-5.5厘米,先端急尖,基部宽楔形或圆形,边缘有刺芒状尖锐锯齿,齿尖有腺,幼时下面密被黄白色绒毛,不久即脱落无毛;叶柄长5-10毫米,微被柔毛,有腺齿;托叶膜质,卵状披针形,先端渐尖,边缘具腺齿,长约7毫米。花单生于叶腋,花梗短粗,长5-10毫米,无毛;花直径2.5-3厘米;萼筒钟状外面无毛;萼片三角披针形,长6-10毫米,先端渐尖,边缘有腺齿,外面无毛,内面密被浅褐色绒毛,反折;花瓣倒卵形,淡粉红色;雄蕊多数,长不及花瓣之半;花柱3-5,基部合生,被柔毛,柱头头状,有不显明分裂,约与雄蕊等长或稍长。果实长椭圆形,长10-15厘米,暗黄色,木质,味芳香,果梗短。花期4月,果期9-10月。
分布(Distribution):产山东、陕西、湖北、江西、安徽、江苏、浙江、广东、广西等地,现我国中北部有栽培。
用途(Use):习见栽培供观赏,果实味涩,水煮或浸渍糖液中供食用,入药有解酒、去痰、顺气、止痢之效。果皮干燥后仍光滑,不皱缩,故有光皮木瓜之称。木材坚硬可作床柱用。
引自中国植物志英文版:FOC Vol. 9 Page 172     
Chaenomeles sinensis (Thouin) Koehne, Gatt. Pomac. 29. 1890.
木瓜 mu gua| Rosaceae  | Chaenomeles
Cydonia sinensis Thouin, Ann. Mus. Hist. Nat. 19: 145. 1812; Pseudocydonia sinensis (Thouin) C. K. Schneider; Pyrus cathayensis Hemsley; P. chinensis Sprengel; P. sinensis (Thouin) Poiret.
Shrubs or small trees, to 5–10 m. Branchlets purplish red, terete, unarmed, initially pubescent, soon glabrate, with pale lenticels; buds purplish brown, glabrous, apex obtuse. Stipules ovate-oblong, rhomboidal, or lanceolate, 5–12 mm, herbaceous, subglabrous, margin glandular serrate, apex acute; petiole 5–10 mm, pubescent, glandular serrate; leaf blade elliptic-ovate or elliptic-oblong, rarely obovate, 5–8 × 3.5–5.5 cm, abaxially yellowish white tomentose when young, soon glabrescent, base broadly cuneate or rounded, margin aristate and sharply serrate (teeth glandular at apices), apex acute. Pedicel short, 5–10 mm, glabrous. Flowers solitary, 2.5–3 cm in diam. Hypanthium campanulate, abaxially glabrous. Sepals reflexed; triangular-lanceolate, 6–10 mm, abaxially glabrous, adaxially brown tomentose, apex acute or acuminate. Petals pinkish, obovate, base shortly clawed, apex rounded. Stamens numerous, ca. 1/2 as long as petals. Styles 3–5, ca. as long as stamens, connate at base. Pome fragrant, dark yellow, narrowly ellipsoid, 10–15 cm, woody; sepals caducous; fruiting pedicel short. Fl. Apr, fr. Sep–Oct.
About 1000 m. Anhui, Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, Hebei, Hubei, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, Shaanxi, Shandong, Zhejiang.
 






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