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白腊Fraxinus chinensis

时间:2013-10-23 13:41来源:未知 作者:徐晔春 点击:
中文名( Chinese Name ):白腊 学名( Scientific Name ): Fraxinus chinensis Roxb. 英文名( English Common Name ): Chinese ash 别名( Chinese Common Name ): 异名( Synonym ): Fraxinus lingelsheimii Rehd. Fraxinus szaboana Lingelsh.
中文名(Chinese Name):白腊
学名(Scientific Name):Fraxinus chinensis Roxb.
英文名(English Common Name):Chinese ash
别名(Chinese Common Name):
异名(Synonym):Fraxinus lingelsheimii Rehd.  Fraxinus szaboana Lingelsh.  Fraxinus sargentiana Lingelsh.  Fraxinus yunnanensis Lingelsh.  Fraxinus caudata J. L. Wu  Fraxinus medicinalis S. S. Sun  Fraxinus chinensis var. acuminata Lingelsh.  Fraxinus chinensis var. rotundata Lingelsh.  Fraxinus rhynchophylla var. huashanensis J. L. Wu et Z. W. Xie  Fraxinus chinensis var. tomentosa Lingelsh.
科属(Family & Genus):木犀科(Oleaceae)梣属
形态特征(Description):落叶乔木,高10-12米;树皮灰褐色,纵裂。芽阔卵形或圆锥形,被棕色柔毛或腺毛。小枝黄褐色,粗糙,无毛或疏被长柔毛,旋即秃净,皮孔小,不明显。羽状复叶长15-25厘米;叶柄长4-6厘米,基部不增厚;叶轴挺直,上面具浅沟,初时疏被柔毛,旋即秃净;小叶5-7枚,硬纸质,卵形、倒卵状长圆形至披针形,长3-10厘米,宽2-4厘米,顶生小叶与侧生小叶近等大或稍大,先端锐尖至渐尖,基部钝圆或楔形,叶缘具整齐锯齿,上面无毛,下面无毛或有时沿中脉两侧被白色长柔毛,中脉在上面平坦,侧脉8-10对,下面凸起,细脉在两面凸起,明显网结;小叶柄长3-5毫米。圆锥花序顶生或腋生枝梢,长8-10厘米;花序梗长2-4厘米,无毛或被细柔毛,光滑,无皮孔;花雌雄异株;雄花密集,花萼小,钟状,长约1毫米,无花冠,花药与花丝近等长;雌花疏离,花萼大,桶状,长2-3毫米, 4浅裂,花柱细长,柱头2裂。翅果匙形,长3-4厘米,宽4-6毫米,上中部最宽,先端锐尖,常呈犁头状,基部渐狭,翅平展,下延至坚果中部,坚果圆柱形,长约1.5厘米;宿存萼紧贴于坚果基部,常在一侧开口深裂。花期4-5月,果期7-9月。
分布(Distribution):产于南北各省区,多为栽培,也见于海拔800-1600米山地杂木林中。越南、朝鲜也有
用途(Use):主要经济用途为放养白蜡虫生产白蜡,材理通直,生长迅速,柔软坚韧,供编制各种用具;树皮也作药用。
引自中国植物志英文版:FOC Vol. 15 Page 277
Fraxinus chinensis Roxburgh, Fl. Ind. 1: 150. 1820.
白蜡树 bai la shu| Oleaceae  | Fraxinus
Trees 3-20 m. Branchlets glabrous, sparsely villous puberulent or tomentose; buds broadly ovoid or conical, brown tomentose, pubescent or glandular hairy. Leaves 12-35 cm; petiole 3-9 cm; axis puberulent or pilose at first, leaflet joint glabrous or densely tomentose; leaflets 3-7(-9); petiolule 2-15 mm; leaflet blade broadly ovate, ovate, to lanceolate or elliptic to obovate-lanceolate, 4-16 × 2-7 cm (terminal much larger), papery to somewhat leathery, glabrous or villous, sometimes villous only along veins abaxially, base blunt or cuneate, margin regularly serrate to crenate-serrate, sometimes entire in lower half, apex acute to long acuminate or caudate; primary veins 5-10 on each side of midrib. Panicles terminal or lateral, 5-10 cm. Flowers dioecious, opening with leaves. Staminate flowers congested; calyx cupular, 1-1.5 mm; corolla absent. Pistillate flowers lax; calyx tubular, 2-3 mm. Samara spatulate to very narrowly so, 2.5-4 cm × 3-7(-15) mm; wing decurrent to middle or lower part of nutlet.
Slopes, along rivers, roadsides, mixed woods; 800-2300 m. Throughout China [Japan, Korea, Russia, Vietnam]


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