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香椿Toona sinensis

时间:2013-10-16 20:46来源:未知 作者:徐晔春 点击:
中文名( Chinese Name ):香椿 学名( Scientific Name ): Toona sinensis (A. Juss.) Roem. 英文名( English Common Name ): 别名( Chinese Common Name ): 异名( Synonym ): Toona sinensis var. schensiana (C. DC.) X. M. Chen Ailanthus f
中文名(Chinese Name):香椿
学名(Scientific Name):Toona sinensis (A. Juss.) Roem.
英文名(English Common Name):
别名(Chinese Common Name):
异名(Synonym):Toona sinensis var. schensiana (C. DC.) X. M. Chen  Ailanthus flavescens Carrière  Cedrela sinensis Juss.  Cedrela sinensis var. hupehana C. DC.  Cedrela sinensis var. schensiana C. DC.  Cedrela chinensis Franch.  Cedrela serrata Royle  Toona sinensis var. grandis Pamp.  Toona serrata (Royle) M. Roem.  Toona serrulata (Miq.) Harms  Cedrela glabra C. DC.  Cedrela longifolia var. kumaona C. DC.  Mioptrila odorata Rafin.  Cedrela sinensis var. lanceolata H. L. Li  Surenus glabra (C. DC.) Kuntze  Surenus serrulata (Miq.) Kuntze  Surenus sinensis (A. Juss.) Kuntze  Toona glabra (C. DC.) Harms  Toona microcarpa var. denticulata A. Chev.  Toona microcarpa var. grandifolia A. Chev.  Cedrela longiflora Wall. et C. DC.  Cedrela serrata var. puberula C. DC.  Cedrela serrulata Miq.  Cedrela longiflora var. kumaona C. DC.  Surenus serrata (Royle) Kuntze  Toona sinensis var. incarvillei A. Chev.
科属Family & Genus):楝科(Meliaceae)香椿属
形态特征(Description):乔木;树皮粗糙,深褐色,片状脱落。叶具长柄,偶数羽状复叶,长30-50厘米或更长;小叶16-20,对生或互生,纸质,卵状披针形或卵状长椭圆形,长9-15厘米,宽2.5-4厘米,先端尾尖,基部一侧圆形,另一侧楔形,不对称,边全缘或有疏离的小锯齿,两面均无毛,无斑点,背面常呈粉绿色,侧脉每边18-24条,平展,与中脉几成直角开出,背面略凸起;小叶柄长5-10毫米。圆锥花序与叶等长或更长,被稀疏的锈色短柔毛或有时近无毛,小聚伞花序生于短的小枝上,多花;花长4-5毫米,具短花梗;花萼5齿裂或浅波状,外面被柔毛,且有睫毛;花瓣5,白色,长圆形,先端钝,长4-5毫米,宽2-3毫米,无毛;雄蕊10,其中5枚能育,5枚退化;花盘无毛,近念珠状;子房圆锥形,有5条细沟纹,无毛,每室有胚珠8颗,花柱比子房长,柱头盘状。蒴果狭椭圆形,长2-3.5厘米,深褐色,有小而苍白色的皮孔,果瓣薄;种子基部通常钝,上端有膜质的长翅,下端无翅。花期6-8月,果期10-12月。
分布(Distribution):产华北、华东、中部、南部和西南部各省区,生于山地杂木林或疏林中。朝鲜也有。
用途(Use):幼芽嫩叶芳香可口,供蔬食;木材黄褐色而具红色环带,纹理美丽,质坚硬,有光泽,耐腐力强,易施工,为家具、室内装饰品及造船的优良木材;根皮及果入药,有收敛止血、去湿止痛之功效。
引自中国植物志英文版:FOC Vol. 11 Page 112, 113
Toona sinensis (A. Jussieu) M. Roemer, Fam. Nat. Syn. Monogr. 1: 139. 1846.
香椿 xiang chun | Meliaceae  | Toona
Cedrela sinensis A. Jussieu, Bull. Sci. Nat. Géol. 23: 241. 1830; Ailanthus flavescens Carrière ["Ailantus"]; C. glabra C. Candolle; C. longiflora Wallich ex C. Candolle, nom. illeg. superfl. (included type of C. glabra); C. longiflora var. kumaona C. Candolle; C. serrata Royle; C. serrata var. puberula C. Candolle; C. serrulata Miquel; C. sinensis var. hupehana C. Candolle; C. sinensis var. lanceolata H. L. Li; C. sinensis var. schensiana C. Candolle; Mioptrila odorata Rafinesque; Surenus glabra (C. Candolle) Kuntze; S. serrata (Royle) Kuntze; S. serrulata (Miquel) Kuntze; S. sinensis (A. Jussieu) Kuntze; Toona glabra (C. Candolle) Harms; T. microcarpa (C. Candolle) Harms var. denticulata A. Chevalier; T. microcarpa var. grandifolia A. Chevalier; T. serrata (Royle) M. Roemer; T. serrulata (Miquel) Harms; T. sinensis var. grandis Pampanini; T. sinensis var. hupehana (C. Candolle) A. Chevalier; T. sinensis var. incarvillei A. Chevalier; T. sinensis var. schensiana (C. Candolle) H. Li ex X. M. Chen.
Trees to 40 m tall; trunk to 20 m tall, to 1.5 m d.b.h., buttressed. Bark gray to dark brown, fissured; inner bark pink to red, fibrous; sap-wood cream-colored to red, fibrous, smelling strongly of garlic and pepper when cut. Leaves 32-120 cm; petiole 5.5-20 cm, glabrous or pilose; rachis often reddish, glabrous or pilose; leaflets usually 8-20 pairs; petiolules 3-9 mm, glabrescent; leaflet blades narrowly lanceolate to linear-lanceolate, 11-22 × 3-5.6 cm, glabrous or pilose especially on midvein and secondary veins, with club-shaped glandular trichomes conspicuous on adaxial midvein areas and junction between leaf rachis and petiolules, base asymmetric, margin serrate, serrulate, or rarely entire, apex acuminate. Inflorescences to 1 m, pendent; rachis pilose, villous, or glabrescent, with short appressed or spreading simple trichomes. Flowers 3.5-4.5 mm. Pedicel ca. 0.5 mm, pilose to glabrescent. Calyx cup-shaped, 1-1.5 mm, outside glabrous; sepals 0.5-1.1 × 0.6-1.8 mm, margins ciliate. Petals white or flushed pink, 2.8-4.2 × 1.1-2.9 mm, outside glabrous, margin not ciliate. Androgynophore 2.5-4 mm, glabrous; staminodes always present, (1-)5, 0.7-1.8 mm, glabrous; filaments 1.3-1.8 mm (male flowers), 1-1.5 mm (female flowers), glabrous; anthers of male flowers 0.8-1.2 × 0.5-0.8 mm; antherodes of female flowers 0.3-0.8 × 0.3-0.5 mm, apex apiculate and sometimes extended. Disk orange, 1-1.5 mm in diam., glabrous. Ovary 1.6-2.3 mm in diam., glabrous, with to 6 ovules per locule; style 1.1-1.5 × ca. 0.5 mm (male), 0.5-0.8 × 0.3-0.4 mm (female), glabrous; stylehead 0.5-1 mm in diam. Capsule 1.5-3 cm; columella 1.2-2.9 × 0.6-1.1 cm, convex; valves reddish to dark brown, 1.5-3 × 0.4-0.7 cm, smooth or occasionally punctate but not conspicuously lenticellate, with only 0.3-0.5 mm in diam. scattered lenticels. Seeds 0.8-1.6 cm × 3.5-6.2 mm, winged at one end; seed body 0.8-1 cm × 1.7-4 mm. Fl. May-Oct, fr. Aug-Jan.
Primary montane forests, especially on steep hillsides or open slopes, sometimes near streams; also occurring in ravines, mixed or secondary forests, disturbed areas; below 100-2900 m. Anhui, Fujian, S Gansu, Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, Hebei, Henan, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, S Shaanxi, Sichuan, SE Xizang, Yunnan, Zhejiang [Bhutan, India, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, Nepal, Thailand].
This is generally an upland species but also occurs at lower altitudes in China. It is planted in India and Sri Lanka for shade, and in various European cities (e.g., Paris) as an ornamental.
The timber is used for furniture and sieve hoop-making, and in bridge construction. The leaves are used as a vegetable in China and Malaysia, and as animal fodder in India. The trees are widely used medicinally, with the bark being used as an astringent and depurative, powdered root as a refreshment and a diuretic, and tender leaves as a carminative.
The leaf morphology and indumentum types and density are particularly variable in this species, with capsule valve form also showing some variability. On the basis of such features, up to eight infraspecific variants have been recognized by other authors.




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