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酸豆Tamarindus indica

时间:2018-08-14 07:28来源:未知 作者:徐晔春 点击:
中文名( Chinese Name ):酸豆 学名( Scientific Name ): Tamarindus indica L. 英文名( English Common Name ): tamarind 别名( Chinese Common Name ): 酸荚、酸角 异名( Synonym ): Tamarindus officinalis Hook. Tamarindus umbrosa Salis
中文名(Chinese Name):酸豆
学名(Scientific Name):Tamarindus indica L.
英文名(English Common Name):tamarind
别名(Chinese Common Name):酸荚、酸角
异名(Synonym):Tamarindus officinalis Hook.  Tamarindus umbrosa Salisb.  Tamarindus occidentalis Gaertn. 
科属Family & Genus):云实科酸豆属
形态特征Description):乔木,高10-15(-25)米,胸径30-50(-90)厘米;树皮暗灰色,不规则纵裂。小叶小,长圆形,长1.3-2.8厘米,宽5-9毫米,先端圆钝或微凹,基部圆而偏斜,无毛。花黄色或杂以紫红色条纹,少数;总花梗和花梗被黄绿色短柔毛;小苞片2枚,长约1厘米,开花前紧包着花蕾;萼管长约7毫米,檐部裂片披针状长圆形,长约1.2厘米,花后反折;花瓣倒卵形,与萼裂片近等长,边缘波状,皱折;雄蕊长1.2-1.5厘米,近基部被柔毛,花丝分离部分长约7毫米,花药椭圆形,长2.5毫米;子房圆柱形,长约8毫米,微弯,被毛。荚果圆柱状长圆形,肿胀,棕褐色,长5-14厘米,直或弯拱,常不规则地缢缩;种子3-14颗,褐色,有光泽。花期5-8月;果期12-翌年5月。
分布(Distribution):原产于非洲,现各热带地区均有栽培。我国南部引种栽培,在部分地区逸为野生。
用途(Use):果肉味酸甜,可生食或熟食,或作蜜饯或制成各种调味酱及泡菜;果汁加糖水是很好的清凉饮料;种仁榨取的油可供食用。果实入药,为清凉缓下剂,有驱风和抗坏血病之功效。此外,叶、花、果实均含有一种酸性物质,与其他含有染料的花混合,可作染料。
引自植物志英文版:FOC Vol. 10 Page 26
Tamarindus indica Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 1: 34. 1753.
酸豆 suan dou| Fabaceae  | Tamarindus
Trees, 10-15(-25) m tall. Trunk 30-50(-90) cm d.b.h. Bark dark ashy, irregularly longitudinally splitting. Leaflets ob­long, small, 1.3-2.8 cm × 5-9 mm, glabrous, base obliquely rounded, apex rounded or emarginate. Flowers few, yellowish tinged with purplish red stripes; peduncles and pedicels yel­lowish green puberulent; bracteoles 2, ca. 1 cm, enclosing flow­er bud before anthesis. Calyx tube ca. 7 mm; lobes lanceolate-oblong, ca. 1.2 cm, reflexed after anthesis. Petals obovate, sub­equal to calyx lobes, margin repand, curled. Stamens 1.2-1.5 cm, pubescent near base, free parts of filaments ca. 7 mm; an­thers elliptic, ca. 2.5 mm. Ovary slightly incurved, terete, ca. 8 mm, hairy. Legume brownish, straight or arcuate, terete-oblong, turgid, 5-14 cm, often irregularly constricted. Seeds 3-14, brownish, shiny. Fl. May-Aug, fr. Dec-May. 2n = 24, 26, 28*.
Cultivated. Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi, ?Hainan, Yunnan (Jinsha Jiang valley) [native to Africa; widely cultivated in the tropics].
The pulp of the fruit and the seed oil are edible. The fruit can be used medicinally for relieving fever and constipation and as an antiscor­butic. The hard, heavy wood is used for building houses and making farm tools and furniture. The trunk is robust, with wind-resistant strength, and is suitable for planting on seashores.






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