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槐Sophora japonica

时间:2018-08-14 07:29来源:未知 作者:徐晔春 点击:
中文名( Chinese Name ):槐 学名( Scientific Name ): Sophora japonica 英文名( English Common Name ): Japanese pagoda tree 别名( Chinese Common Name ): 槐花树、豆槐 异名( Synonym ): Styphnolobium japonicum (L.) Schott Sophora s
中文名(Chinese Name):槐
学名(Scientific Name):Sophora japonica
英文名(English Common Name):Japanese pagoda tree
别名(Chinese Common Name):槐花树、豆槐
异名(Synonym):Styphnolobium japonicum (L.) Schott  Sophora sinensis Forrest  Ormosia esquirolii H. Lév.
科属Family & Genus):蝶形花科槐属
形态特征Description):乔木,高达25米;树皮灰褐色,具纵裂纹。当年生枝绿色,无毛。羽状复叶长达25厘米;叶轴初被疏柔毛,旋即脱净;叶柄基部膨大,包裹着芽;托叶形状多变,有时呈卵形,叶状,有时线形或钻状,早落;小叶4-7对,对生或近互生,纸质,卵状披针形或卵状长圆形,长2.5-6厘米,宽1.5-3厘米,先端渐尖,具小尖头,基部宽楔形或近圆形,稍偏斜,下面灰白色,初被疏短柔毛,旋变无毛;小托叶2枚,钻状。圆锥花序顶生,常呈金字塔形,长达30厘米;花梗比花萼短;小苞片2枚,形似小托叶;花萼浅钟状,长约4毫米,萼齿5,近等大,圆形或钝三角形,被灰白色短柔毛,萼管近无毛;花冠白色或淡黄色,旗瓣近圆形,长和宽约11毫米,具短柄,有紫色脉纹,先端微缺,基部浅心形,翼瓣卵状长圆形,长10毫米,宽4毫米,先端浑圆,基部斜戟形,无皱褶,龙骨瓣阔卵状长圆形,与翼瓣等长,宽达6毫米;雄蕊近分离,宿存;子房近无毛。荚果串珠状,长2.5-5厘米或稍长,径约10毫米,种子间缢缩不明显,种子排列较紧密,具肉质果皮,成熟后不开裂,具种子1-6粒;种子卵球形,淡黄绿色,干后黑褐色。花期7-8月,果期8-10月。
分布(Distribution):原产中国,现南北各省区广泛栽培。日本、越南、朝鲜有野生,欧洲、美洲各国均有引种栽培。
用途(Use):树冠优美,花芳香,是行道树和优良的蜜源植物;花和荚果入药,有清凉收敛、止血降压作用;叶和根皮有清热解毒作用,可治疗疮毒;木材供建筑用。
引自植物志英文版:FOC Vol. 10 Page 86, 92, 93
Sophora japonica Linnaeus, Mant. Pl. 1: 68. 1767.
槐 huai| Fabaceae  | Sophora
Anagyris chinensis Sprengel; Macrotropis foetida Can­dolle; Ormosia esquirolii H. Léveillé; Pongamia chinensis Can­dolle; Robinia mitis Loureiro (1790), not Linnaeus (1763); Sophora angustifoliola Q. Q. Liu & H. Y. Ye ["angustifiola"]; S. japonica f. columnaris Schwerin; S. japonica f. hybrida Carrière; S. japonica f. oligophylla Franchet; S. japonica f. pendula Loudon; S. japonica var. praecox Schwerin; S. japonica var. pubescens (Tausch) Bosse; S. japonica f. variegata Nichols; S. japonica var. vestita Rehder; S. japonica var. violacea Carrière; S. mairei H. Léveillé (1915), not Pampanini (1910); S. pubescens Tausch; S. sinensis Forrest; S. vaniotii H. Léveillé; Styphnolobium japonicum (Linnaeus) Schott.
Trees, to 25 m. Bark gray-brown, longitudinally striate; branches of current year green, glabrous. Leaves 15-25 cm; stipules ovate to linear, caducous; petiole inflated at base, bud hidden; leaflets 9-15; stipels subulate; blades ovate-lanceolate or ovate-oblong, 2.5-6 × 1.5-3 cm, papery, glaucous and sparsely to densely pubescent abaxially, usually becoming gla­brate, base broadly cuneate or rounded, apex acuminate, mucro­nate. Panicles terminal, to 30 cm; bracteole subulate. Calyx shortly campanulate, 3.5-4.5 mm; teeth 5, obtuse, pubescent. Corolla white or creamy yellow, rarely purple-red; standard broadly ovate, claw short, base cordate, apex retuse; wings ovate-oblong, ca. 10 × 4 mm; keel similar to wings, but broader. Stamens 10, unequal, free, persistent. Ovary glabrescent. Leg­umes green, moniliform, 2.5-5 × ca. 1 cm, obviously con­stricted between seeds, indehiscent, fleshy. Seeds 1-6, yellow-green, black-brown when dry, ovoid. Fl. Jul-Aug, fr. Aug-Oct.
Cultivated throughout China [native to Japan and Korea; widely cultivated elsewhere].
Many intergrading varieties and horticultural forms exist that are not worthy of recognition at this level. Sophora angustifoliola appears to be merely a narrow-leaved form of this species.







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