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红豆树Ormosia hosiei

时间:2018-08-14 07:41来源:未知 作者:徐晔春 点击:
中文名( Chinese Name ):红豆树 学名( Scientific Name ): Ormosia hosiei Hemsl. et Wils. 英文名( English Common Name ): 别名( Chinese Common Name ): 鄂西红豆、江阴红豆 异名( Synonym ): Ormosia taiana C. Y. Chiao 科属( Family G
中文名(Chinese Name):红豆树
学名(Scientific Name):Ormosia hosiei Hemsl. et Wils.
英文名(English Common Name):
别名(Chinese Common Name):鄂西红豆、江阴红豆
异名(Synonym):Ormosia taiana C. Y. Chiao
科属(Family & Genus):蝶形花科,Fabaceae红豆属
形态特征(Description):常绿或落叶乔木,高达20-30米,胸径可达1米;树皮灰绿色,平滑。小枝绿色,幼时有黄褐色细毛,后变光滑;冬芽有褐黄色细毛。奇数羽状复叶,长12.5-23厘米;叶柄长2-4厘米,叶轴长3.5-7.7厘米,叶轴在最上部一对小叶处延长0.2-2厘米生顶小叶;小叶(1-) 2(-4)对,薄革质,卵形或卵状椭圆形,稀近圆形,长3-10.5厘米,宽1.5-5厘米,先端急尖或渐尖,基部圆形或阔楔形,上面深绿色,下面淡绿色,幼叶疏被细毛,老则脱落无毛或仅下面中脉有疏毛,侧脉8-10对,和中脉成60°角,干后侧脉和细脉均明显凸起成网格;小叶柄长2-6毫米,圆形,无凹槽,小叶柄及叶轴疏被毛或无毛。圆锥花序顶生或腋生,长15-20厘米,下垂;花疏,有香气;花梗长1.5-2厘米;花萼钟形,浅裂,萼齿三角形,紫绿色,密被褐色短柔毛;花冠白色或淡紫色,旗瓣倒卵形,长1.8-2厘米,翼瓣与龙骨瓣均为长椭圆形;雄蕊10,花药黄色;子房光滑无毛,内有胚珠5-6粒,花柱紫色,线状,弯曲,柱头斜生。荚果近圆形,扁平,长3.3-4.8厘米,宽2.3-3.5厘米,先端有短喙,果颈长约5-8毫米,果瓣近革质,厚约2-3毫米,干后褐色,无毛,内壁无隔膜,有种子1-2粒;种子近圆形或椭圆形,长1.5-1.8厘米,宽1.2-1.5厘米,厚约5毫米,种皮红色,种脐长约9-10毫米,位于长轴一侧。花期4-5月,果期10-11月。
分布(Distribution):产陕西(南部)、甘肃(东南部)、江苏、安徽、浙江、江西、福建、湖北、四川、贵州。生于河旁、山坡、山谷林内,海拔200-900米,稀达1350米。
用途(Use):本种在本属中是分布于纬度最北地区的种类,较为耐寒。木材坚硬细致,纹理美丽,有光泽,边材不耐腐,易受虫蛀,心材耐腐朽,为优良的木雕工艺及高级家具等用材;根与种子入药;树姿优雅,为很好的庭园树种。
引自植物志英文版:FOC Vol. 10 Page 73, 79
Ormosia hosiei Hemsley & E. H. Wilson, Bull. Misc. In­form. Kew. 1906: 156. 1906.
红豆树 hong dou shu | Fabaceae  | Ormosia
Ormosia taiana C. Y. Chiao.
Trees evergreen or deciduous, 20-30 m, to 1 m d.b.h. Bark of stems grayish green, smooth. Branchlets green, yellowish brown pubescent, becoming glabrescent; winter buds brownish yellow pubescent. Leaves imparipinnate, 12.5-23 cm; petiole 2-4 cm; rachis 3.5-7.7 cm, prolonged 0.2-2 cm below terminal leaflet, petiolule and rachis sparsely appressed pubescent or gla­brous; leaflets (3-)5(-9); petiolule 2-6 mm, rounded, without groove; blades pale green abaxially, dark green adaxially, ovate or ovate-elliptic, rarely suborbicular, 3-10.5 × 1.5-5 cm, thinly leathery, young leaves sparsely appressed pubescent, becoming glabrate or with scattered hairs only on midvein abaxially, base rounded or broadly cuneate, apex acute or acuminate; lateral veins 8-10 pairs, angled 60° with midvein, both lateral veins and veinlets conspicuously reticulate when dried. Panicles ter­minal or axillary, 15-20 cm, pendulous. Flowers few, fragrant; pedicel 1.5-2 cm. Calyx broadly campanulate; teeth purplish green, triangular, densely appressed brownish pubescent. Corol­la white or purplish; standard obovate, 1.8-2 cm; both wings and keel oblong. Stamens unequal; anthers yellow. Ovary gla­brous; ovules 5 or 6; style purple, filiform, curved; stigma oblique. Legumes suborbicular, compressed, 3.3-4.8 × 2.3-3.5 cm, apex shortly beaked, stipe 5-8 mm; valves subleathery, 2-3 mm thick, brownish when dried, glabrous, veins obvious, inter­nal septum absent. Seeds 1 or 2, red, suborbicular or elliptic, 15-18 × 12-15 × ca. 5 mm; hilum 9-10 mm. Fl. Apr-May, fr. Oct-Nov.
● Riversides, mountain slopes, valley forests; 200-900(-1400) m. Anhui, Fujian, Gansu, Guizhou, Hubei, SE Jiangsu, Jiangxi, S Shaanxi, Sichuan, Zhejiang.


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