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沙棘Hippophae rhamnoides

时间:2013-09-09 08:20来源:未知 作者:徐晔春 点击:
中文名( Chinese Name ): 沙棘 学名( Scientific Name ): Hippophae rhamnoides L. 英文名( English Common Name ): seaberry 别名( Chinese Common Name ): 中国沙棘、酸刺柳、酸刺 异名( Synonym ): Hippophae rhamnoideum Saint-Lager Hip
中文名(Chinese Name):沙棘
学名(Scientific Name):Hippophae rhamnoides L.
英文名(English Common Name):seaberry
别名(Chinese Common Name):中国沙棘、酸刺柳、酸刺
异名(Synonym):Hippophae rhamnoideum Saint-Lager  Hippophae sibirica Lodd.  Hippophae stourdziana J. Szabó  Hippophae littoralis Salisb.  Hippophae angustifolia Lodd.  Osyris rhamnoides Scop.  Rhamnoides hippophae Moench
科属(Family & Genus):胡颓子科(Elaeagnaceae)沙棘属
形态特征(Description):落叶乔木或灌木,高1-10米,枝灰色,具粗壮棘刺。叶互生或近对生,条形至条状披针形,两端钝尖。花先叶开放雌雄异株,短总状花序腋生于枝顶,花小,淡黄色。果实橙色或橘黄色,近球形。花期5月,果期8-9月。
分布(Distribution):产河北、内蒙古、山西、陕西、甘肃、青海、四川西部。常生于海拔800-3600米温带地区向阳的山瘠、谷地、干涸河床地或山坡,多砾石或沙质土壤或黄土上。
用途(Use):
引自中国植物志英文版FOC Vol. 13 Page 271      
Hippophaë rhamnoides Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 2: 1023. 1753.
沙棘 sha ji| Elaeagnaceae  | Hippophae
Elaeagnus rhamnoides (Linnaeus) A. Nelson; Rhamnoides Hippophae Moench.
Shrubs or trees, 1-15(-18) m tall. Bark brownish green, yellowish brown, or black; branches many, spines 2-7 cm. Leaves alternate; petiole ± absent; leaf blade abaxially silvery white suffused with brown or yellow, adaxially dark grayish green, linear or linear-lanceolate, 2-8 × 0.2-0.8 cm, ± narrowed at base, abaxially with white and brown stellate scales, margin ± revolute, apex subobtuse. Male inflorescence a minute spike, 5-8 × 4-6 mm. Male flowers: calyx lobes greenish brown, ovate-orbicular, 3-4 × 3-3.5 mm, concave, outside with numerous brown and sparse white stellate scales; stamens 1/2-2/3 as long as calyx; anthers nearly sessile, oblong-linear, ca. 1.5 mm. Female flowers 2-5 in axils of branchlets; pedicels ca. 0.5 mm, to 5 mm in fruit; calyx brown, tubular, oblong-obovate, 2.5-4 × 1-1.5 mm, outside with stellate brown and few white scales, lobes obtuse, interior with rather long white hairs, dense in upper part; Ovary globose-ovoid, 1-2 mm, ca. 1/2 as long as calyx, glabrous; style ca. 0.5 mm; stigma oblong, 0.5-1 mm, exserted. Peduncle 1-7 mm. Fruit orange or reddish, globose, ovoid, globose-ovoid, or ellipsoid, terete, 4-9(-10) × 3-8 mm, glabrous, succulent and aromatic. Endocarp easy to separate from seed. Seed dark brown, sometimes nearly black, glossy, ovoid-oblong, or oblong-ellipsoid, 4-7 × 1.5-2 or 4-5 mm. Fl. Apr-May, fr. Sep-Oct. 2n = 24*.
River banks and terraces, dry river beds, forest margins, thickets on mountain slopes, moraines, meadows at highest elevations; 600-4200 m. Gansu, Hebei, Nei Mongol, Qinghai, Shaanxi, Shanxi, Sichuan, Xinjiang, N and SE Xizang, Yunnan [Afghanistan, India, Kashmir, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Mongolia, Pakistan, Russia, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan; SW Asia, Europe].
Hippophae rhamnoides subsp. rhamnoides is found in coastal N Europe, from France and Ireland east to the E Baltic. There are a further three subspecies recognized from Europe and C and SW Asia.


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