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牛奶子Elaeagnus umbellata

时间:2018-06-27 11:28来源:未知 作者:徐晔春 点击:
中文名( Chinese Name ): 牛奶子 学名( Scientific Name ): Elaeagnus umbellata Thunb. 英文名( English Common Name ): autumn olive 别名( Chinese Common Name ): 剪子果、甜枣 异名( Synonym ): Elaeagnus obovata Li Elaeagnus crispa
中文名(Chinese Name):牛奶子
学名(Scientific Name):Elaeagnus umbellata Thunb.
英文名(English Common Name):autumn olive
别名(Chinese Common Name):剪子果、甜枣
异名(Synonym):Elaeagnus obovata Li  Elaeagnus crispa Thunb.  Elaeagnus convexolepidota Hayata  Elaeagnus coreana H. Lév.  Elaeagnus parvifolia Wall. ex Royle  Elaeagnus crocea Nakai  Elaeagnus fragrans Nakai  Elaeagnus higoensis Nakai  Elaeagnus crispa var. praematura Koidz.  Elaeagnus longipes var. crispa (Thunb.) Maxim.  Elaeagnus padifolia K.Koch  Elaeagnus praematura (Koidz.) Araki  Elaeagnus umbellata f. nakaiana (Araki) H.Ohba  Elaeagnus umbellata var. nakaiana Araki
科属(Family & Genus):胡颓子科(Elaeagnaceae)胡颓子属
形态特征(Description):落叶直立灌木,高1-4米,具长1-4厘米的刺;小枝甚开展,多分枝,幼枝密被银白色和少数黄褐色鳞片,有时全被深褐色或锈色鳞片,老枝鳞片脱落,灰黑色;芽银白色或褐色至锈色。叶纸质或膜质,椭圆形至卵状椭圆形或倒卵状披针形,长3-8厘米,宽1-3.2厘米,顶端钝形或渐尖,基部圆形至楔形,边缘全缘或皱卷至波状,上面幼时具白色星状短柔毛或鳞片,成熟后全部或部分脱落,干燥后淡绿色或黑褐色,下面密被银白色和散生少数褐色鳞片,侧脉5-7对,两面均略明显;叶柄白色,长5-7毫米。花较叶先开放,黄白色,芳香,密被银白色盾形鳞片,1-7花簇生新枝基部,单生或成对生于幼叶腋;花梗白色,长3-6毫米;萼筒圆筒状漏斗形,稀圆筒形,长5-7毫米,在裂片下面扩展,向基部渐窄狭,在子房上略收缩,裂片卵状三角形,长2-4毫米,顶端钝尖,内面几无毛或疏生白色星状短柔毛;雄蕊的花丝极短,长约为花药的一半,花药矩圆形,长约1.6毫米;花柱直立,疏生少数白色星状柔毛和鳞片,长6.5毫米,柱头侧生。果实几球形或卵圆形,长5-7毫米,幼时绿色,被银白色或有时全被褐色鳞片,成熟时红色;果梗直立,粗壮,长4-10毫米。花期4-5月,果期7-8月。
分布(Distribution):产华北、华东、西南各省区和陕西、甘肃、青海、宁夏、辽宁、湖北。日本、朝鲜、阿富汗、意大利及东南亚等均有分布。
用途(Use):
引自中国植物志英文版FOC Vol. 13 Page 252, 267      
Elaeagnus umbellata Thunberg in Murray, Syst. Veg., ed. 14. 164. 1784.
牛奶子 niu nai zi | Elaeagnaceae  | Elaeagnus
Elaeagnus convexolepidota Hayata; E. coreana H. Léveillé; E. crispa Thunberg; E. crocea Nakai; E. fragrans Nakai; E. higoensis Nakai; E. longipes A. Gray var. crispa (Thunberg) Maximowicz; E. obovata H. L. Li; E. parvifolia Wallich ex Royle; E. salicifolia D. Don ex Loudon; E. umbellata var. coreana (H. Léveillé) H. Léveillé; E. umbellata f. parvifolia (Wallich ex Royle) Kitamura; E. umbellata subsp. parvifolia (Wallich ex Royle) Servettaz; E. umbellata var. parvifolia (Wallich ex Royle) C. K. Schneider.








Shrubs, deciduous, erect with branchlets spreading. New branches and buds silvery scaly. Petiole 3-5(-10) mm; leaf blade obovate, 2.2-5.5(-8) × 1-1.6(-2.5) cm, papery, abaxially densely white scaly, adaxially sparsely scaly when young, lateral veins 5-8 per side of midrib, base cuneate, apex acute to obtuse. Flowers 1-3(-7)-fasciculate in axils of both long and short shoots; pedicel 3-6(-8) mm, to 1.2 cm in fruit. Flowers silvery white. Calyx tube funnel-shaped, 5-7 mm, slender; lobes triangular-ovate, 2.8-3 mm. Filaments ca. 0.7 mm; anthers elliptic, 1.8-2 mm. Style 6-7 mm, with stellate hairs; stigma ca. 2.2 mm. Drupe red, nearly globose, (6-)8-9 mm. Seed ca. 7 mm. Fl. Apr-May, fr. Jul-Aug. 2n = 28*.
Thickets; (100-)500-3000 m. Gansu, Hubei, Jiangsu, Liaoning, Shaanxi, Shandong, Shanxi, Sichuan, Xizang, Yunnan, Zhejiang [Afghanistan, Bhutan, India, Japan, Korea, Nepal; naturalized in North America].
(责任编辑:徐晔春)
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