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老鸦柿Diospyros rhombifolia

时间:2013-09-09 08:08来源:未知 作者:徐晔春 点击:
中文名( Chinese Name ): 老鸦柿 学名( Scientific Name ): Diospyros rhombifolia Hermsl. 英文名( English Common Name ): 别名( Chinese Common Name ): 异名( Synonym ): 科属( Family Genus ): 柿科(Ebenaceae)柿属 形态特征( Des
中文名(Chinese Name):老鸦柿
学名(Scientific Name):Diospyros rhombifolia Hermsl.
英文名(English Common Name):
别名(Chinese Common Name):
异名(Synonym):
科属(Family & Genus):柿科(Ebenaceae)柿属
形态特征(Description):落叶小乔木,高可达8米左右;树皮灰色,平滑;多枝,分枝低,有枝刺;枝深褐色或黑褐色,无毛,散生椭圆形的纵裂小皮孔;小枝略曲折,褐色至黑褐色,有柔毛。冬芽小,长约,2毫米,有柔毛或粗伏毛。叶纸质,菱状倒卵形,长4-8.5厘米,宽1.8-3.8厘米,先端钝,基部楔形,上面深绿色,沿脉有黄褐色毛,后变无毛,下面浅绿色,疏生伏柔毛,在脉上较多,中脉在上面凹陷,下面明显凸起,侧脉每边5-6条,上面凹陷,下面明显凸起,小脉纤细,结成不规则的疏网状;叶柄很短,纤细,长2-4毫米,有微柔毛。雄花生当年生枝下部;花萼4深裂,裂片三角形,长约3毫米,宽约2毫米,先端急尖,有髯毛,边缘密生柔毛,背面疏生短柔毛;花冠壶形,长约4毫米,两面疏生短柔毛,5裂,裂片覆瓦状排列,长约2毫米,宽约1.5毫米,先端有髯毛,边缘有短柔毛,外面疏生柔毛,内面有微柔毛;雄蕊16枚,每2枚连生,腹面1枚较短,花丝有柔毛;花药线形,先端渐尖;退化子房小,球形,顶端有柔毛;花梗长约7毫米;雌花:散生当年生枝下部;花萼4深裂,几裂至基部,裂片披针形,长约1厘米,宽约3毫米,先端急尖,边缘有柔毛,外面上部和脊上疏生柔毛,内面无毛,有纤细而凹陷的纵脉;花冠壶形,花冠管长约3.5毫米,宽约4毫米,4脊上疏生白色长柔毛,内面有短柔毛,4裂,裂片长圆形,约和花冠管等长,向外反曲,顶端有髯毛,边缘有柔毛,内面有微柔毛,外面有柔毛;子房卵形,密生长柔毛,4室;花柱2,下部有长柔毛;柱头2浅裂;花梗纤细,长约1.8厘米,有柔毛。果单生,球形,直径约2厘米,嫩时黄绿色,有柔毛,后变橙黄色,熟时桔红色,有蜡样光泽,无毛,顶端有小突尖;有种子2-4颗;种子褐色,半球形或近三棱形,长约1厘米,宽约6毫米,背部较厚,宿存萼4深裂,裂片革质,长圆状披针形,长1.6-2厘米,宽4-6毫米,先端急尖,有明显的纵脉;果柄纤细,长1.5-2.5厘米。花期4-5月,果期9-10月。
分布(Distribution):产浙江、江苏、安徽、江西、福建等地,生于山坡灌丛或山谷沟畔林中。
用途(Use):
引自中国植物志英文版FOC Vol. 15 Page 220
Diospyros rhombifolia Hemsley, J. Linn. Soc., Bot. 26: 70. 1889.
老鸦柿 lao ya shi | Ebenaceae  | Diospyros
Trees to 8 m tall, deciduous. Branchlets pubescent, usually with inconspicuous slender spiny tips, sometimes also with short thick lateral spines. Petiole 2--4 mm, slender, puberulous; leaf blade, 4--8.5 X 1.8--3.8 cm, papery, abaxially paler and scattered appressed pubescent, adaxially dark green, yellowish brown pubescent on veins, glabrescent, and minutely pustulate, base cuneate, margin ciliate, apex acute to acuminate, lateral veins 5--7 per side, reticulate veinlets slender, lax, raised on both surfaces, and sometimes pale or inconspicuous. Male flowers: pedicel ca. 7 mm; calyx lobes 4, triangular; corolla urn-shaped, ca. 4 mm, both surfaces slightly pubescent; stamens 16. Female flowers: pedicel ca. 1.8 cm, pubescent; calyx lobes 4, divided nearly to base, lanceolate, ca. 1 cm; corolla urn-shaped, with 4 white villose ridges; corolla lobes 4, reflexed; ovary densely villose. Fruit solitary, fruiting pedicel 1.5--2.5 cm, slender. Fruiting calyx lobes 4, spreading to slightly reflexed, oblong-lanceolate, 1.6--2 X ca. 0.5 cm, veins several, subparallel, and slightly raised. Berries orange, globose, ca. 2 cm in diam., glabrous, shiny. Seeds 2--4, brown, ca. 1 cm. Fl. Apr-May, fr. Sep-Oct.
* Thickets on slopes, forests beside streams; 300--800 m. Anhui, Fujian, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, Zhejiang.
Unripe fruit of Diospyros rhombifolia yield persimmon lacquer used for waterproofing fishing nets, oilcloths, etc.
Plants are often with short stout leafless spines which distinguish sterile and fruiting material from Diospyros cathayensis and D. armata.





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