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罗浮柿Diospyros morrisiana

时间:2018-06-27 11:23来源:未知 作者:徐晔春 点击:
中文名( Chinese Name ): 罗浮柿 学名( Scientific Name ): Diospyros morrisiana Hance 英文名( English Common Name ): 别名( Chinese Common Name ): 牛古柿、山椑树 异名( Synonym ): Diospyros nipponica Nakai Diospyros sasakii Hayat
中文名(Chinese Name):罗浮柿
学名(Scientific Name):Diospyros morrisiana Hance
英文名(English Common Name):
别名(Chinese Common Name):牛古柿、山椑树
异名(Synonym):Diospyros nipponica Nakai  Diospyros sasakii Hayata
科属(Family & Genus):树科Ebenaceae柿属Diospyros
形态特征(Description):乔木或小乔木,高可达20米,胸径可达30厘米;树皮呈片状剥落,表面黑色,除芽、花序和嫩梢外,各部分无毛。枝灰褐色,散生长圆形或线状长圆形的纵裂皮孔;嫩枝疏被短柔毛。冬芽圆锥状,长约2毫米,有短柔毛。叶薄革质,长椭圆形或下部的为卵形,长5-10厘米,宽2.5-4厘米,先端短渐尖或钝,基部楔形,叶缘微背卷,上面有光泽,深绿色,下面绿色,干时上面常呈灰褐色,下面常变为棕褐色,中脉上面平坦,下面凸起,侧脉纤细,每边4-6条,上面略明显,下面稍凸起,在老叶上的有时上面微凹下,斜向上生,梢端网结,小脉很纤细,结成疏网状,不明晰;叶柄长约1厘米,嫩时疏被短柔毛,先端有很狭的翅。雄花序短小,腋生,下弯,聚伞花序式,有锈色绒毛;雄花带白色,花萼钟状,有绒毛,4裂,裂片三角形,花冠在芽时为卵状圆锥形,开放时近壶形,长约7毫米,4裂,裂片卵形,长约2.5毫米,反曲;雄蕊16-20枚,着生在花冠管的基部,每2枚合生成对,腹面1枚较短;花药有毛;花梗短,长约2毫米,密生伏柔毛;雌花:腋生,单生;花萼浅杯状,外面有伏柔毛,内面密生棕色绢毛,4裂,裂片三角形,长约5毫米;花冠近壶形,长约7毫米,外面无毛,内面有浅棕色绒毛;裂片4,卵形,长约3毫米,先端急尖;退化雄蕊6枚;子房球形;花柱4,通常合生至中部,有白毛;花梗长约2毫米。果球形,直径约1.8厘米,黄色,有光泽,4室,每室有1种子;种子近长圆形,栗色,侧扁,长约1.2厘米,宽约6毫米,背较厚;宿存警近平展,近方形,径约8毫米,外面近秃净,内面被棕色绢毛,4浅裂;果柄长约2毫米。花期5-6月,果期11月。
分布(Distribution):产广东、广西、福建、台湾、浙江、江西、湖南南部、贵州东南部、云南东南部、四川盆地等地;垂直分布可达海拔1100-1450米;生于山坡、山谷疏林或密林中,或灌丛中,或近溪畔、水边。越南北部也有分布。
用途(Use):未成熟果实可提取柿漆,木材可制家具。茎皮、叶、果入药,有解毒消炎之效;鲜叶1-2两,水煎服,治食物中毒;绿果煞成膏,晒干,研粉,敷治水火烫伤;树皮3-5钱,水煎服,治腹泻、赤白痢。
引自中国植物志英文版FOC Vol. 15 Page 223      
Diospyros morrisiana Hance in Walpers, Ann. Bot. Syst. 3: 14. 1852.
罗浮柿 luo fu shi | Ebenaceae  | Diospyros
Shrubs or trees, 3--20 m tall, deciduous. Trunk to 30 cm d.b.h., bark peeling off in thin pieces, surface black. Young shoots and winter buds puberulous, inflorescences and flowers tomentose, otherwise glabrous. Winter buds conical, ca. 2 mm. Petiole ca. 1 cm; leaf blade elliptic, 5--11.5 X 2.5--4.3 cm, thinly leathery, abaxially drying brown, adaxially glossy dark green and drying grayish brown, base cuneate or obtuse, margin sometimes slightly undulate, apex acuminate to obtuse, lateral veins 4--8 per side, reticulate veinlets very slender and inconspicuous. Male flowers congested, cymose, nodding; pedicel ca. 2 mm; calyx lobes 4, brownish puberulent; corolla glabrous, white, urn-shaped, ca. 7 mm; corolla lobes 4, spreading, ovate, ca. 2 X 2 mm; stamens 16--20, conspicuously hairy. Female flowers solitary; pedicel ca. 2 mm; calyx lobes 4, divided to about middle; corolla nearly urn-shaped, ca. 7 mm; corolla lobes 4, ca. 3 X 3 mm, outside glabrous, inside densely brown sericeous; staminodes 6. Fruiting pedicel ca. 3 mm, stout. Fruiting calyx ± square, 6--8 mm wide, outside densely puberulent, inside sericeous; lobes 4, spreading, triangular. Berries yellow, globose, 1.5--2.2(--2.9) cm in diam., 8-locular, glabrous, apex sometimes apiculate. Seeds often ca. 4, glossy dark olive-brown, laterally compressed, (8--)10--14 X 5--7 X ca. (2--)3 mm. Fl. May-Jun, fr. Nov.
Forest slopes, ravines, along streams; (0--)100--1000(--1400) m. Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, Sichuan, Taiwan, Yunnan, Zhejiang [Japan, Vietnam]









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